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Are quantum dots ready for in vivo imaging in human subjects?

Cai W, Hsu AR, Li ZB, Chen X - Nanoscale Res Lett (2007)

Bottom Line: Numerous studies on QDs have resulted in major advancements in QD surface modification, coating, biocompatibility, sensitivity, multiplexing, targeting specificity, as well as important findings regarding toxicity and applicability.For in vitro applications, QDs can be used in place of traditional organic fluorescent dyes in virtually any system, outperforming organic dyes in the majority of cases.With new advances in QD technology such as bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, synthesis of smaller size non-Cd based QDs, improved surface coating and conjugation, and multifunctional probes for multimodality imaging, it is likely that human applications of QDs will soon be possible in a clinical setting.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Molecular Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology and Bio-X Program, Stanford University School of Medicine, 1201 Welch Rd, P095, Stanford, CA 94305-5484, USA.

ABSTRACT
Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly transform the nature of cancer diagnosis and cancer patient management in the future. Over the past decade, quantum dots (QDs) have become one of the fastest growing areas of research in nanotechnology. QDs are fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles suitable for multiplexed in vitro and in vivo imaging. Numerous studies on QDs have resulted in major advancements in QD surface modification, coating, biocompatibility, sensitivity, multiplexing, targeting specificity, as well as important findings regarding toxicity and applicability. For in vitro applications, QDs can be used in place of traditional organic fluorescent dyes in virtually any system, outperforming organic dyes in the majority of cases. In vivo targeted tumor imaging with biocompatible QDs has recently become possible in mouse models. With new advances in QD technology such as bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, synthesis of smaller size non-Cd based QDs, improved surface coating and conjugation, and multifunctional probes for multimodality imaging, it is likely that human applications of QDs will soon be possible in a clinical setting.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Antibody-conjugated QDs for in vivo cancer targeting and imaging. Mouse on the left was a control. From [37]
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Figure 9: Antibody-conjugated QDs for in vivo cancer targeting and imaging. Mouse on the left was a control. From [37]

Mentions: ABC triblock copolymer-coated QDs for prostate cancer targeting and imaging in live animals has been reported [37]. Research has identified prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) as a cell-surface marker for both prostate epithelial cells and neovascular endothelial cells [171]. Polymer-coated QDs were conjugated to PSMA-specific monoclonal antibodies and it was estimated that there were 5–6 antibody molecules per QD. Using spectral imaging techniques where fluorescence signals from QDs and mouse autofluorescence can be separated based on the emission spectra [172,173], intravenously injected probe were found to accumulate in the tumor site (Fig. 9) [37]. Multiplexed imaging was also demonstrated in live animals using QD-labeled cancer cells. Since no histological analysis was carried out to investigate the expression level of PSMA on the tumor cells and tumor vasculature, it was unclear whether these QD conjugates targeted tumor vasculature or tumor cells. In addition, the QDs used in this study were not optimized for tissue penetration or imaging sensitivity because the emission wavelength was in the visible region instead of the NIR region.


Are quantum dots ready for in vivo imaging in human subjects?

Cai W, Hsu AR, Li ZB, Chen X - Nanoscale Res Lett (2007)

Antibody-conjugated QDs for in vivo cancer targeting and imaging. Mouse on the left was a control. From [37]
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3050636&req=5

Figure 9: Antibody-conjugated QDs for in vivo cancer targeting and imaging. Mouse on the left was a control. From [37]
Mentions: ABC triblock copolymer-coated QDs for prostate cancer targeting and imaging in live animals has been reported [37]. Research has identified prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) as a cell-surface marker for both prostate epithelial cells and neovascular endothelial cells [171]. Polymer-coated QDs were conjugated to PSMA-specific monoclonal antibodies and it was estimated that there were 5–6 antibody molecules per QD. Using spectral imaging techniques where fluorescence signals from QDs and mouse autofluorescence can be separated based on the emission spectra [172,173], intravenously injected probe were found to accumulate in the tumor site (Fig. 9) [37]. Multiplexed imaging was also demonstrated in live animals using QD-labeled cancer cells. Since no histological analysis was carried out to investigate the expression level of PSMA on the tumor cells and tumor vasculature, it was unclear whether these QD conjugates targeted tumor vasculature or tumor cells. In addition, the QDs used in this study were not optimized for tissue penetration or imaging sensitivity because the emission wavelength was in the visible region instead of the NIR region.

Bottom Line: Numerous studies on QDs have resulted in major advancements in QD surface modification, coating, biocompatibility, sensitivity, multiplexing, targeting specificity, as well as important findings regarding toxicity and applicability.For in vitro applications, QDs can be used in place of traditional organic fluorescent dyes in virtually any system, outperforming organic dyes in the majority of cases.With new advances in QD technology such as bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, synthesis of smaller size non-Cd based QDs, improved surface coating and conjugation, and multifunctional probes for multimodality imaging, it is likely that human applications of QDs will soon be possible in a clinical setting.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Molecular Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology and Bio-X Program, Stanford University School of Medicine, 1201 Welch Rd, P095, Stanford, CA 94305-5484, USA.

ABSTRACT
Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly transform the nature of cancer diagnosis and cancer patient management in the future. Over the past decade, quantum dots (QDs) have become one of the fastest growing areas of research in nanotechnology. QDs are fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles suitable for multiplexed in vitro and in vivo imaging. Numerous studies on QDs have resulted in major advancements in QD surface modification, coating, biocompatibility, sensitivity, multiplexing, targeting specificity, as well as important findings regarding toxicity and applicability. For in vitro applications, QDs can be used in place of traditional organic fluorescent dyes in virtually any system, outperforming organic dyes in the majority of cases. In vivo targeted tumor imaging with biocompatible QDs has recently become possible in mouse models. With new advances in QD technology such as bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, synthesis of smaller size non-Cd based QDs, improved surface coating and conjugation, and multifunctional probes for multimodality imaging, it is likely that human applications of QDs will soon be possible in a clinical setting.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus