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Are quantum dots ready for in vivo imaging in human subjects?

Cai W, Hsu AR, Li ZB, Chen X - Nanoscale Res Lett (2007)

Bottom Line: Numerous studies on QDs have resulted in major advancements in QD surface modification, coating, biocompatibility, sensitivity, multiplexing, targeting specificity, as well as important findings regarding toxicity and applicability.For in vitro applications, QDs can be used in place of traditional organic fluorescent dyes in virtually any system, outperforming organic dyes in the majority of cases.With new advances in QD technology such as bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, synthesis of smaller size non-Cd based QDs, improved surface coating and conjugation, and multifunctional probes for multimodality imaging, it is likely that human applications of QDs will soon be possible in a clinical setting.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Molecular Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology and Bio-X Program, Stanford University School of Medicine, 1201 Welch Rd, P095, Stanford, CA 94305-5484, USA.

ABSTRACT
Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly transform the nature of cancer diagnosis and cancer patient management in the future. Over the past decade, quantum dots (QDs) have become one of the fastest growing areas of research in nanotechnology. QDs are fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles suitable for multiplexed in vitro and in vivo imaging. Numerous studies on QDs have resulted in major advancements in QD surface modification, coating, biocompatibility, sensitivity, multiplexing, targeting specificity, as well as important findings regarding toxicity and applicability. For in vitro applications, QDs can be used in place of traditional organic fluorescent dyes in virtually any system, outperforming organic dyes in the majority of cases. In vivo targeted tumor imaging with biocompatible QDs has recently become possible in mouse models. With new advances in QD technology such as bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, synthesis of smaller size non-Cd based QDs, improved surface coating and conjugation, and multifunctional probes for multimodality imaging, it is likely that human applications of QDs will soon be possible in a clinical setting.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Western blot of two proteins (a &b) using two QD-antibody conjugates. Overlay of the two images is shown in c. From [107]
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Figure 4: Western blot of two proteins (a &b) using two QD-antibody conjugates. Overlay of the two images is shown in c. From [107]

Mentions: In addition to the abovementioned studies, QDs have also been used for a variety of other purposes. Herein we highlight some recent literature on novel uses of QDs. A QD “peptide toolkit” has been constructed for the creation of small, buffer soluble, mono-disperse peptide-coated QDs with high colloidal stability [47]. QD-based probes have been used for co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis, allowing for simpler and faster image acquisition and quantification than traditional methods (Fig. 4) [105-108]. Since QDs are both fluorescent and electron dense, studies have investigated double- and triple-immunolabeling using light, electron, and correlated microscopy in cells and rodent tissues [109,110]. Cell-penetrating QDs based on the use of multivalent and endosome-disrupting surface coatings has been reported [111,112]. Using live HeLa cells, the motion of individual kinesin motors tagged with QDs has been successfully demonstrated [113]. This study demonstrated the importance of single molecule experiments in the investigation of intracellular transport. QD-based optical barcodes can detect single nucleotide polymorpisms where the DNA sequences differ only at a single nucleotide [114,115]. In comparison with planar chips, bead-based multiplexing has many distinct advantages such as greater statistical analysis, faster assay time, and the flexibility to add additional probes at lower costs [116]. DNA-driven QD arrays have been investigated to utilize photogenerated currents for optoelectronic photoelectrochemistry [117]. QDs have also been used to track RNA interference [118], target surface proteins in living cells [119], detect bacteria [41], and couple with other nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes [120].


Are quantum dots ready for in vivo imaging in human subjects?

Cai W, Hsu AR, Li ZB, Chen X - Nanoscale Res Lett (2007)

Western blot of two proteins (a &b) using two QD-antibody conjugates. Overlay of the two images is shown in c. From [107]
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3050636&req=5

Figure 4: Western blot of two proteins (a &b) using two QD-antibody conjugates. Overlay of the two images is shown in c. From [107]
Mentions: In addition to the abovementioned studies, QDs have also been used for a variety of other purposes. Herein we highlight some recent literature on novel uses of QDs. A QD “peptide toolkit” has been constructed for the creation of small, buffer soluble, mono-disperse peptide-coated QDs with high colloidal stability [47]. QD-based probes have been used for co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis, allowing for simpler and faster image acquisition and quantification than traditional methods (Fig. 4) [105-108]. Since QDs are both fluorescent and electron dense, studies have investigated double- and triple-immunolabeling using light, electron, and correlated microscopy in cells and rodent tissues [109,110]. Cell-penetrating QDs based on the use of multivalent and endosome-disrupting surface coatings has been reported [111,112]. Using live HeLa cells, the motion of individual kinesin motors tagged with QDs has been successfully demonstrated [113]. This study demonstrated the importance of single molecule experiments in the investigation of intracellular transport. QD-based optical barcodes can detect single nucleotide polymorpisms where the DNA sequences differ only at a single nucleotide [114,115]. In comparison with planar chips, bead-based multiplexing has many distinct advantages such as greater statistical analysis, faster assay time, and the flexibility to add additional probes at lower costs [116]. DNA-driven QD arrays have been investigated to utilize photogenerated currents for optoelectronic photoelectrochemistry [117]. QDs have also been used to track RNA interference [118], target surface proteins in living cells [119], detect bacteria [41], and couple with other nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes [120].

Bottom Line: Numerous studies on QDs have resulted in major advancements in QD surface modification, coating, biocompatibility, sensitivity, multiplexing, targeting specificity, as well as important findings regarding toxicity and applicability.For in vitro applications, QDs can be used in place of traditional organic fluorescent dyes in virtually any system, outperforming organic dyes in the majority of cases.With new advances in QD technology such as bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, synthesis of smaller size non-Cd based QDs, improved surface coating and conjugation, and multifunctional probes for multimodality imaging, it is likely that human applications of QDs will soon be possible in a clinical setting.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Molecular Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology and Bio-X Program, Stanford University School of Medicine, 1201 Welch Rd, P095, Stanford, CA 94305-5484, USA.

ABSTRACT
Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly transform the nature of cancer diagnosis and cancer patient management in the future. Over the past decade, quantum dots (QDs) have become one of the fastest growing areas of research in nanotechnology. QDs are fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles suitable for multiplexed in vitro and in vivo imaging. Numerous studies on QDs have resulted in major advancements in QD surface modification, coating, biocompatibility, sensitivity, multiplexing, targeting specificity, as well as important findings regarding toxicity and applicability. For in vitro applications, QDs can be used in place of traditional organic fluorescent dyes in virtually any system, outperforming organic dyes in the majority of cases. In vivo targeted tumor imaging with biocompatible QDs has recently become possible in mouse models. With new advances in QD technology such as bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, synthesis of smaller size non-Cd based QDs, improved surface coating and conjugation, and multifunctional probes for multimodality imaging, it is likely that human applications of QDs will soon be possible in a clinical setting.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus