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Tracking the feeding patterns of tsetse flies (Glossina genus) by analysis of bloodmeals using mitochondrial cytochromes genes.

Muturi CN, Ouma JO, Malele II, Ngure RM, Rutto JJ, Mithöfer KM, Enyaru J, Masiga DK - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: In Nguruman, where G. pallidipes flies were analyzed, the feeds were from elephants (6/13) and warthogs (5/13), while buffaloes and baboons accounted for one bloodmeal each.Only cattle blood was detected in flies caught in Busia and Uganda.Out of four flies tested in Mbita Point, Suba District in western Kenya, one had fed on cattle, the other three on the Nile monitor lizard.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Department, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya.

ABSTRACT
Tsetse flies are notoriously difficult to observe in nature, particularly when populations densities are low. It is therefore difficult to observe them on their hosts in nature; hence their vertebrate species can very often only be determined indirectly by analysis of their gut contents. This knowledge is a critical component of the information on which control tactics can be developed. The objective of this study was to determine the sources of tsetse bloodmeals, hence investigate their feeding preferences. We used mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and cytochrome b (cytb) gene sequences for identification of tsetse fly blood meals, in order to provide a foundation for rational decisions to guide control of trypanosomiasis, and their vectors. Glossina swynnertoni were sampled from Serengeti (Tanzania) and G. pallidipes from Kenya (Nguruman and Busia), and Uganda. Sequences were used to query public databases, and the percentage identities obtained used to identify hosts. An initial assay showed that the feeds were from single sources. Hosts identified from blood fed flies collected in Serengeti ecosystem, included buffaloes (25/40), giraffes (8/40), warthogs (3/40), elephants (3/40) and one spotted hyena. In Nguruman, where G. pallidipes flies were analyzed, the feeds were from elephants (6/13) and warthogs (5/13), while buffaloes and baboons accounted for one bloodmeal each. Only cattle blood was detected in flies caught in Busia and Uganda. Out of four flies tested in Mbita Point, Suba District in western Kenya, one had fed on cattle, the other three on the Nile monitor lizard. These results demonstrate that cattle will form an integral part of a control strategy for trypanosomiasis in Busia and Uganda, while different approaches are required for Serengeti and Nguruman ecosystems, where wildlife abound and are the major component of the tsetse fly food source.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

A map showing georeferenced sites where tsetse flies were trapped in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.A Google Earth map is also available (http://www.icipe.org/images/stories/downloads/muturi_et_al_figure1.zip.zip).
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pone-0017284-g001: A map showing georeferenced sites where tsetse flies were trapped in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.A Google Earth map is also available (http://www.icipe.org/images/stories/downloads/muturi_et_al_figure1.zip.zip).

Mentions: Tsetse flies were trapped in 2008 and 2009, at the sites shown in Figure 1. In all locations, tsetse flies were caught using biconical traps [19] baited with acetone and cow urine [20]. Trapping was done in the Serengeti National Park (northwestern Tanzania), Nguruman (southwestern Kenya), Busia (western Kenya/eastern Uganda) and northeastern Uganda. In the Serengeti Ecosystem, flies were trapped at Death Valley (DV), Tunner Spring (TS) and Handajega (HA). Features that characterize Death Valley include a mixture of open woodlands, dense woodland, savannah and grassland. The Tunner Spring area consists of open grassland and few thickets in between whereas Handajega is an open savannah intermingled with open woodlands and very close to human settlement. The trapping areas in Nguruman were near the escarpment, where two tsetse species, G. pallidipes and G. longipennis have been recorded, with the former being the predominant species [21]. The vegetation consists of patches of lowland woodland surrounded by open savannah, through which tsetse disperse during wet seasons [22], and there is abundant game [23]. The Busia area in western Kenya, eastern and northern Uganda are agricultural areas with mixed crop and livestock farming. There are no significant populations of large wild mammals. In all localities, blood-fed flies were identified using morphological keys [24] and either preserved whole in 95% ethanol, or midguts squashed onto Whatman No.1® filter paper that were then kept desiccated with silica gel. Both were stored at 4°C within 24 h of collection until processed.


Tracking the feeding patterns of tsetse flies (Glossina genus) by analysis of bloodmeals using mitochondrial cytochromes genes.

Muturi CN, Ouma JO, Malele II, Ngure RM, Rutto JJ, Mithöfer KM, Enyaru J, Masiga DK - PLoS ONE (2011)

A map showing georeferenced sites where tsetse flies were trapped in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.A Google Earth map is also available (http://www.icipe.org/images/stories/downloads/muturi_et_al_figure1.zip.zip).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3046180&req=5

pone-0017284-g001: A map showing georeferenced sites where tsetse flies were trapped in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.A Google Earth map is also available (http://www.icipe.org/images/stories/downloads/muturi_et_al_figure1.zip.zip).
Mentions: Tsetse flies were trapped in 2008 and 2009, at the sites shown in Figure 1. In all locations, tsetse flies were caught using biconical traps [19] baited with acetone and cow urine [20]. Trapping was done in the Serengeti National Park (northwestern Tanzania), Nguruman (southwestern Kenya), Busia (western Kenya/eastern Uganda) and northeastern Uganda. In the Serengeti Ecosystem, flies were trapped at Death Valley (DV), Tunner Spring (TS) and Handajega (HA). Features that characterize Death Valley include a mixture of open woodlands, dense woodland, savannah and grassland. The Tunner Spring area consists of open grassland and few thickets in between whereas Handajega is an open savannah intermingled with open woodlands and very close to human settlement. The trapping areas in Nguruman were near the escarpment, where two tsetse species, G. pallidipes and G. longipennis have been recorded, with the former being the predominant species [21]. The vegetation consists of patches of lowland woodland surrounded by open savannah, through which tsetse disperse during wet seasons [22], and there is abundant game [23]. The Busia area in western Kenya, eastern and northern Uganda are agricultural areas with mixed crop and livestock farming. There are no significant populations of large wild mammals. In all localities, blood-fed flies were identified using morphological keys [24] and either preserved whole in 95% ethanol, or midguts squashed onto Whatman No.1® filter paper that were then kept desiccated with silica gel. Both were stored at 4°C within 24 h of collection until processed.

Bottom Line: In Nguruman, where G. pallidipes flies were analyzed, the feeds were from elephants (6/13) and warthogs (5/13), while buffaloes and baboons accounted for one bloodmeal each.Only cattle blood was detected in flies caught in Busia and Uganda.Out of four flies tested in Mbita Point, Suba District in western Kenya, one had fed on cattle, the other three on the Nile monitor lizard.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Department, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya.

ABSTRACT
Tsetse flies are notoriously difficult to observe in nature, particularly when populations densities are low. It is therefore difficult to observe them on their hosts in nature; hence their vertebrate species can very often only be determined indirectly by analysis of their gut contents. This knowledge is a critical component of the information on which control tactics can be developed. The objective of this study was to determine the sources of tsetse bloodmeals, hence investigate their feeding preferences. We used mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and cytochrome b (cytb) gene sequences for identification of tsetse fly blood meals, in order to provide a foundation for rational decisions to guide control of trypanosomiasis, and their vectors. Glossina swynnertoni were sampled from Serengeti (Tanzania) and G. pallidipes from Kenya (Nguruman and Busia), and Uganda. Sequences were used to query public databases, and the percentage identities obtained used to identify hosts. An initial assay showed that the feeds were from single sources. Hosts identified from blood fed flies collected in Serengeti ecosystem, included buffaloes (25/40), giraffes (8/40), warthogs (3/40), elephants (3/40) and one spotted hyena. In Nguruman, where G. pallidipes flies were analyzed, the feeds were from elephants (6/13) and warthogs (5/13), while buffaloes and baboons accounted for one bloodmeal each. Only cattle blood was detected in flies caught in Busia and Uganda. Out of four flies tested in Mbita Point, Suba District in western Kenya, one had fed on cattle, the other three on the Nile monitor lizard. These results demonstrate that cattle will form an integral part of a control strategy for trypanosomiasis in Busia and Uganda, while different approaches are required for Serengeti and Nguruman ecosystems, where wildlife abound and are the major component of the tsetse fly food source.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus