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Black Cohosh: Insights into its Mechanism(s) of Action.

Ruhlen RL, Sun GY, Sauter ER - Integr Med Insights (2008)

Bottom Line: Although the mechanism by which BCE relieves symptoms is unknown, several hypotheses have been proposed: it acts 1) as a selective estrogen receptor modulator, 2) through serotonergic pathways, 3) as an antioxidant, or 4) on inflammatory pathways.We found that while the most prominent triterpene in BCE, 23-epi-26-deoxyactein, suppresses cytokine-induced nitric oxide production in brain microglial cells, the whole BCE extract actually enhanced this pathway.A variety of activities have been reported for black cohosh and its compounds, but the absorption and tissue distribution of these compounds is unknown.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departments of Surgery and.

ABSTRACT
The Women's Health Initiative found that combination estrogen and progesterone hormone replacement therapy increases breast cancer and cardiovascular disease risk, which compelled many women to seek herbal alternatives such as black cohosh extract (BCE) to relieve their menopausal symptoms. While several clinical trials document the efficacy of BCE in alleviating menopausal symptoms, preclinical studies to determine how BCE works have yielded conflicting results. Part of this is because there is not a universally accepted method to standardize the dose of black cohosh triterpenes, the presumed active ingredients in the extract. Although the mechanism by which BCE relieves symptoms is unknown, several hypotheses have been proposed: it acts 1) as a selective estrogen receptor modulator, 2) through serotonergic pathways, 3) as an antioxidant, or 4) on inflammatory pathways. We found that while the most prominent triterpene in BCE, 23-epi-26-deoxyactein, suppresses cytokine-induced nitric oxide production in brain microglial cells, the whole BCE extract actually enhanced this pathway. A variety of activities have been reported for black cohosh and its compounds, but the absorption and tissue distribution of these compounds is unknown.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

NO production from cytokine-induced BV-2 cells pretreated with black cohosh from PureWorld (A), or MU Botanical Center (B). Data are expressed as mean % of cytokine-treated control ± SE. *P < 0.05 vs cytokine control.
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f3-imi-2008-021: NO production from cytokine-induced BV-2 cells pretreated with black cohosh from PureWorld (A), or MU Botanical Center (B). Data are expressed as mean % of cytokine-treated control ± SE. *P < 0.05 vs cytokine control.

Mentions: Addition of 130 μg/ml BCE did not alter NO production in BV-2 cells, but increased NO production in IFNγ-stimulated cells in a dose-dependent fashion from 0.13 to 130 μg/ml BCE. Specifically, addition of 130 μg/ml BCE increased NO production by 97 ± 30% over IFNγ alone (Fig. 3A). BCE (13 and 130 μg/ml) slightly increased NO production in LPS-stimulated cells. To determine if this effect was consistent across different sources of black cohosh, black cohosh harvested from the MU Botanical Center was obtained. This second BCE source (13 to 130 μg/ml) also induced NO production in a dose dependent fashion, with 54 ± 4% increase at 130 μg/ml over IFNγ alone (Fig. 3B).


Black Cohosh: Insights into its Mechanism(s) of Action.

Ruhlen RL, Sun GY, Sauter ER - Integr Med Insights (2008)

NO production from cytokine-induced BV-2 cells pretreated with black cohosh from PureWorld (A), or MU Botanical Center (B). Data are expressed as mean % of cytokine-treated control ± SE. *P < 0.05 vs cytokine control.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3046019&req=5

f3-imi-2008-021: NO production from cytokine-induced BV-2 cells pretreated with black cohosh from PureWorld (A), or MU Botanical Center (B). Data are expressed as mean % of cytokine-treated control ± SE. *P < 0.05 vs cytokine control.
Mentions: Addition of 130 μg/ml BCE did not alter NO production in BV-2 cells, but increased NO production in IFNγ-stimulated cells in a dose-dependent fashion from 0.13 to 130 μg/ml BCE. Specifically, addition of 130 μg/ml BCE increased NO production by 97 ± 30% over IFNγ alone (Fig. 3A). BCE (13 and 130 μg/ml) slightly increased NO production in LPS-stimulated cells. To determine if this effect was consistent across different sources of black cohosh, black cohosh harvested from the MU Botanical Center was obtained. This second BCE source (13 to 130 μg/ml) also induced NO production in a dose dependent fashion, with 54 ± 4% increase at 130 μg/ml over IFNγ alone (Fig. 3B).

Bottom Line: Although the mechanism by which BCE relieves symptoms is unknown, several hypotheses have been proposed: it acts 1) as a selective estrogen receptor modulator, 2) through serotonergic pathways, 3) as an antioxidant, or 4) on inflammatory pathways.We found that while the most prominent triterpene in BCE, 23-epi-26-deoxyactein, suppresses cytokine-induced nitric oxide production in brain microglial cells, the whole BCE extract actually enhanced this pathway.A variety of activities have been reported for black cohosh and its compounds, but the absorption and tissue distribution of these compounds is unknown.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departments of Surgery and.

ABSTRACT
The Women's Health Initiative found that combination estrogen and progesterone hormone replacement therapy increases breast cancer and cardiovascular disease risk, which compelled many women to seek herbal alternatives such as black cohosh extract (BCE) to relieve their menopausal symptoms. While several clinical trials document the efficacy of BCE in alleviating menopausal symptoms, preclinical studies to determine how BCE works have yielded conflicting results. Part of this is because there is not a universally accepted method to standardize the dose of black cohosh triterpenes, the presumed active ingredients in the extract. Although the mechanism by which BCE relieves symptoms is unknown, several hypotheses have been proposed: it acts 1) as a selective estrogen receptor modulator, 2) through serotonergic pathways, 3) as an antioxidant, or 4) on inflammatory pathways. We found that while the most prominent triterpene in BCE, 23-epi-26-deoxyactein, suppresses cytokine-induced nitric oxide production in brain microglial cells, the whole BCE extract actually enhanced this pathway. A variety of activities have been reported for black cohosh and its compounds, but the absorption and tissue distribution of these compounds is unknown.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus