Limits...
Malaria rapid diagnostic kits: quality of packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components and readability and accuracy of information inserts.

Gillet P, Maltha J, Hermans V, Ravinetto R, Bruggeman C, Jacobs J - Malar. J. (2011)

Bottom Line: Inadequacies included (i) no referral to biosafety (n=18), (ii) critical differences between depicted and real devices (n=8), (iii) figures with unrealistic colours (n=4), (iv) incomplete information about RDT line interpretations (n=31) and no data on test characteristics (n=8).Three CE labelled RDT kits produced outside the EC had no authorized representative affixed and the shape and relative dimensions of the CE symbol affixed did not comply with the Directive 98/79/EC.Overall, RDTs with evidence of GMP scored better compared to those without but inadequacies were observed in both groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM), Unit of Tropical Laboratory Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, B 2000 Antwerp, Belgium. pgillet@itg.be

ABSTRACT

Background: The present study assessed malaria RDT kits for adequate and correct packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components. Information inserts were studied for readability and accuracy of information.

Methods: Criteria for packaging, design, labelling and information were compiled from Directive 98/79 of the European Community (EC), relevant World Health Organization (WHO) documents and studies on end-users' performance of RDTs. Typography and readability level (Flesch-Kincaid grade level) were assessed.

Results: Forty-two RDT kits from 22 manufacturers were assessed, 35 of which had evidence of good manufacturing practice according to available information (i.e. CE-label affixed or inclusion in the WHO list of ISO13485:2003 certified manufacturers). Shortcomings in devices were (i) insufficient place for writing sample identification (n=40) and (ii) ambiguous labelling of the reading window (n=6). Buffer vial labels were lacking essential information (n=24) or were of poor quality (n=16). Information inserts had elevated readability levels (median Flesch Kincaid grade 8.9, range 7.1-12.9) and user-unfriendly typography (median font size 8, range 5-10). Inadequacies included (i) no referral to biosafety (n=18), (ii) critical differences between depicted and real devices (n=8), (iii) figures with unrealistic colours (n=4), (iv) incomplete information about RDT line interpretations (n=31) and no data on test characteristics (n=8). Other problems included (i) kit names that referred to Plasmodium vivax although targeting a pan-species Plasmodium antigen (n=4), (ii) not stating the identity of the pan-species antigen (n=2) and (iii) slight but numerous differences in names displayed on boxes, device packages and information inserts. Three CE labelled RDT kits produced outside the EC had no authorized representative affixed and the shape and relative dimensions of the CE symbol affixed did not comply with the Directive 98/79/EC. Overall, RDTs with evidence of GMP scored better compared to those without but inadequacies were observed in both groups.

Conclusion: Overall, malaria RDTs showed shortcomings in quality of construction, design and labelling of boxes, device packages, devices and buffers. Information inserts were difficult to read and lacked relevant information.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Four-band RDT. The allocated place for writing sample identification is too small. The grid at the left hand may be confused with a sample well. There are two different reading labels at each side of the reading window, of which the lower one is printed on a label that is not well fixed.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045995&req=5

Figure 1: Four-band RDT. The allocated place for writing sample identification is too small. The grid at the left hand may be confused with a sample well. There are two different reading labels at each side of the reading window, of which the lower one is printed on a label that is not well fixed.

Mentions: Space for writing was too small in 40 of the 42 devices (Figure 1). For two cassettes, a felt pen was required as a standard pen failed to mark.


Malaria rapid diagnostic kits: quality of packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components and readability and accuracy of information inserts.

Gillet P, Maltha J, Hermans V, Ravinetto R, Bruggeman C, Jacobs J - Malar. J. (2011)

Four-band RDT. The allocated place for writing sample identification is too small. The grid at the left hand may be confused with a sample well. There are two different reading labels at each side of the reading window, of which the lower one is printed on a label that is not well fixed.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045995&req=5

Figure 1: Four-band RDT. The allocated place for writing sample identification is too small. The grid at the left hand may be confused with a sample well. There are two different reading labels at each side of the reading window, of which the lower one is printed on a label that is not well fixed.
Mentions: Space for writing was too small in 40 of the 42 devices (Figure 1). For two cassettes, a felt pen was required as a standard pen failed to mark.

Bottom Line: Inadequacies included (i) no referral to biosafety (n=18), (ii) critical differences between depicted and real devices (n=8), (iii) figures with unrealistic colours (n=4), (iv) incomplete information about RDT line interpretations (n=31) and no data on test characteristics (n=8).Three CE labelled RDT kits produced outside the EC had no authorized representative affixed and the shape and relative dimensions of the CE symbol affixed did not comply with the Directive 98/79/EC.Overall, RDTs with evidence of GMP scored better compared to those without but inadequacies were observed in both groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM), Unit of Tropical Laboratory Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, B 2000 Antwerp, Belgium. pgillet@itg.be

ABSTRACT

Background: The present study assessed malaria RDT kits for adequate and correct packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components. Information inserts were studied for readability and accuracy of information.

Methods: Criteria for packaging, design, labelling and information were compiled from Directive 98/79 of the European Community (EC), relevant World Health Organization (WHO) documents and studies on end-users' performance of RDTs. Typography and readability level (Flesch-Kincaid grade level) were assessed.

Results: Forty-two RDT kits from 22 manufacturers were assessed, 35 of which had evidence of good manufacturing practice according to available information (i.e. CE-label affixed or inclusion in the WHO list of ISO13485:2003 certified manufacturers). Shortcomings in devices were (i) insufficient place for writing sample identification (n=40) and (ii) ambiguous labelling of the reading window (n=6). Buffer vial labels were lacking essential information (n=24) or were of poor quality (n=16). Information inserts had elevated readability levels (median Flesch Kincaid grade 8.9, range 7.1-12.9) and user-unfriendly typography (median font size 8, range 5-10). Inadequacies included (i) no referral to biosafety (n=18), (ii) critical differences between depicted and real devices (n=8), (iii) figures with unrealistic colours (n=4), (iv) incomplete information about RDT line interpretations (n=31) and no data on test characteristics (n=8). Other problems included (i) kit names that referred to Plasmodium vivax although targeting a pan-species Plasmodium antigen (n=4), (ii) not stating the identity of the pan-species antigen (n=2) and (iii) slight but numerous differences in names displayed on boxes, device packages and information inserts. Three CE labelled RDT kits produced outside the EC had no authorized representative affixed and the shape and relative dimensions of the CE symbol affixed did not comply with the Directive 98/79/EC. Overall, RDTs with evidence of GMP scored better compared to those without but inadequacies were observed in both groups.

Conclusion: Overall, malaria RDTs showed shortcomings in quality of construction, design and labelling of boxes, device packages, devices and buffers. Information inserts were difficult to read and lacked relevant information.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus