Limits...
Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence--a representative study.

Donath C, Grässel E, Baier D, Pfeiffer C, Karagülle D, Bleich S, Hillemacher T - BMC Public Health (2011)

Bottom Line: Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7%) and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities) with a higher prevalence in rural areas.Common expectations concerning drinking behavior of adolescents of certain cultural backgrounds ('migrants with Russian background drink more'/'migrants from Arabic respectively Oriental-Islamic countries drink less') are only partly affirmed.Possibly, the degree of acculturation to the permissive German alcohol culture plays a role here.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, Psychiatric University Clinic Erlangen, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany. carolin.donath@uk-erlangen.de

ABSTRACT

Background: Binge drinking is a constant problem behavior in adolescents across Europe. Epidemiological investigations have been reported. However, epidemiological data on alcohol consumption of adolescents with different migration backgrounds are rare. Furthermore representative data on rural-urban comparison concerning alcohol consumption and binge drinking are lacking. The aims of the study are the investigation of alcohol consumption patterns with respect to a) urban-rural differences and b) differences according to migration background.

Methods: In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th. grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample). The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers respectively school directors had agreed to participate in the study. Weighting factors were specified and used to make up for regional and school-type specific differences in return rates. 27.4% of the adolescents surveyed have a migration background, whereby the Turkish culture is the largest group followed by adolescents who emigrated from former Soviet Union states. The sample includes seven large cities (over 500,000 inhabitants) (12.2%), independent smaller cities ("urban districts") (19.0%) and rural areas ("rural districts") (68.8%).

Results: Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7%) and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities) with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The same accounts for 12-month prevalence for alcohol consumption. 57.3% of the rural, respectively 45.9% of the urban adolescents engaged in binge drinking in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Students with migration background of the former Soviet Union showed mainly drinking behavior similar to that of German adolescents. Adolescents with Turkish roots had engaged in binge drinking in the last four weeks less frequently than adolescents of German descent (23.6% vs. 57.4%). However, in those adolescents who consumed alcohol in the last 4 weeks, binge drinking is very prominent across the cultural backgrounds.

Conclusions: Binge drinking is a common problem behavior in German adolescents. Obviously adolescents with rural residence have fewer alternatives for engaging in interesting leisure activities than adolescents living in cities. This might be one reason for the more problematic consumption patterns there. Common expectations concerning drinking behavior of adolescents of certain cultural backgrounds ('migrants with Russian background drink more'/'migrants from Arabic respectively Oriental-Islamic countries drink less') are only partly affirmed. Possibly, the degree of acculturation to the permissive German alcohol culture plays a role here.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Binge drinking in 15-year-olds - comparison according to migration back-ground.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045949&req=5

Figure 8: Binge drinking in 15-year-olds - comparison according to migration back-ground.

Mentions: Life-time prevalence for alcohol varies according to the cultural background of the adolescents who migrated to Germany and differs in part substantially from that of German 15-year-olds (Figure 4). As expected, adolescents from Islamic countries have lower life-time prevalence than German or Western European adolescents, except for students from Iran. The three largest groups of 15-year-old students in Germany are compared for the life-time prevalence of specific alcoholic beverages: Germans, adolescents with Turkish migration background and students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union states. As shown in Figure 5 beverage specific life-time prevalence shows the same pattern as life-time prevalence of alcohol with differences between Turkish adolescents and more similar behavior among German and former Soviet Union adolescents. In all three cultural groups, beer is the most commonly tried beverage followed by wine/sparkling wine and alcopops. Hard liquor is the least often tried alcoholic beverage. However, German adolescents have the highest beverage-specific life-time prevalence of the three groups and for hard liquor even of all nations included in the study (Figure 6). The age of first consumption of alcohol in general among German adolescents is 12.50 years (SD 1.98), in adolescents with Turkish background 13.34 (SD 2.01) and adolescents with Russian associated background 12.21 (SD 2.54). This difference is statistically significant (F (2) = 147.85; p < .001). Beverage specific analyses show that basically the youth tries first beer, later wine and sparkling wine, then alcopops and last hard liquor. For German adolescents, there is the exception that the age at first consumption of wine and of beer is nearly the same (12.91 years (SD 1.83) and 12.93 years (SD 1.85)). German adolescents try after beer and wine alcopops at an average age of 13.85 (SD 1.26) years and hard liquor at an average age of 14.02 years. Students with "Russian" migration background try beer with 12.52 (SD 2.47) years, wine respectively sparkling wine with 12.96 (SD 2.17) years, alcopops at an average age of 13.95 (SD 1.57) and hard liquor as the latest beverage at an average age of 14.12 (SD 1.71) years. In contrast, Turkish adolescents try beer at an age of 13.45 (SD 2.04), later wine or sparkling wine at an average age of 13.66 (SD 1.84), alcopops with 14.15 (SD 1.49) years and hard liquor at an average age of 14.08 (SD 1.74). Except for hard liquor the beverage specific first consumption age differs significantly between migration backgrounds as ANOVAs have shown (p < .001 for beer, wine, alcopops). However, the first consumption age of hard liquor is not significantly different between adolescents from different cultural backgrounds (F (2) = 3.54; p = .029). Comparison of the three cultural groups concerning the 12-month prevalence of alcohol consumption shows that almost one-fourth (24.7%) of the German 15-year-olds, less than 10% of the adolescents with Turkish roots (8.4%) and about one-fourth (24.4%) of the adolescents from the former Soviet Union drink alcohol regularly - at least once a week (Figure 7). Beverage-specific 12-month prevalence for the three most common cultural groups in the sample are shown in Table 2. There are significant differences between the three groups for each beverage (p < .001); adolescents with "Russian background" have the highest prevalence of regular consumption (at least once a week) of hard liquor (7.7%), alcopops (9.1%) and wine/sparkling wine (4.9%) followed closely by the German adolescents with very analogical drinking behavior who have the highest prevalence for regular beer consumption (at least once a week) of the three groups (22.5%). The proportion of adolescents who engaged in binge drinking (≥5 drinks on one occasion) in the last 30 days is 57.4% for German 15-year-olds, 23.6% for adolescents with Turkish roots and 56.2% for former Soviet Union emigrants. Looking at the broad range of nations included in the sample, it is evident that binge drinking is most common in adolescents with Western European or North-American background. As to be expected in adolescents who have cultural roots in Islamic-imprinted countries, binge drinking is less evident in general. A different picture opens, though, if one looks only at the adolescents who stated to have consumed alcohol in the last 30 days. Here the adolescents with the two highest binge drinking prevalence are descendents of Oriental-Islamic parents, meaning that if adolescents from these countries do consume alcohol, they almost always do it excessively. But also the descendents of Western, Eastern and South-European parents have a high prevalence of binge drinking when only consumers in the past 30 days are considered (for example former Yugoslavia, Netherlands, Spain) (see Figure 8). The frequency on how many days binge drinkers engage in this risky behavior varies significantly between binge drinkers from different cultural backgrounds (F (21) = 2,526; p < .001). The range is between 2.83 and 6.57 days in the past 30 days. Looking at the three biggest groups in the sample, it is obvious that German students and adolescents from the former Soviet Union act similarly, engaging in binge drinking on 4.58 (SD 4.13) or respectively 4.54 (SD 4.35) days in the last month. The 15-year-olds with Turkish roots who admit to engage in binge drinking had done so on 5.09 (SD 5.51) days during the last month. The three groups do not differ statistically significantly in this variable.


Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence--a representative study.

Donath C, Grässel E, Baier D, Pfeiffer C, Karagülle D, Bleich S, Hillemacher T - BMC Public Health (2011)

Binge drinking in 15-year-olds - comparison according to migration back-ground.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045949&req=5

Figure 8: Binge drinking in 15-year-olds - comparison according to migration back-ground.
Mentions: Life-time prevalence for alcohol varies according to the cultural background of the adolescents who migrated to Germany and differs in part substantially from that of German 15-year-olds (Figure 4). As expected, adolescents from Islamic countries have lower life-time prevalence than German or Western European adolescents, except for students from Iran. The three largest groups of 15-year-old students in Germany are compared for the life-time prevalence of specific alcoholic beverages: Germans, adolescents with Turkish migration background and students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union states. As shown in Figure 5 beverage specific life-time prevalence shows the same pattern as life-time prevalence of alcohol with differences between Turkish adolescents and more similar behavior among German and former Soviet Union adolescents. In all three cultural groups, beer is the most commonly tried beverage followed by wine/sparkling wine and alcopops. Hard liquor is the least often tried alcoholic beverage. However, German adolescents have the highest beverage-specific life-time prevalence of the three groups and for hard liquor even of all nations included in the study (Figure 6). The age of first consumption of alcohol in general among German adolescents is 12.50 years (SD 1.98), in adolescents with Turkish background 13.34 (SD 2.01) and adolescents with Russian associated background 12.21 (SD 2.54). This difference is statistically significant (F (2) = 147.85; p < .001). Beverage specific analyses show that basically the youth tries first beer, later wine and sparkling wine, then alcopops and last hard liquor. For German adolescents, there is the exception that the age at first consumption of wine and of beer is nearly the same (12.91 years (SD 1.83) and 12.93 years (SD 1.85)). German adolescents try after beer and wine alcopops at an average age of 13.85 (SD 1.26) years and hard liquor at an average age of 14.02 years. Students with "Russian" migration background try beer with 12.52 (SD 2.47) years, wine respectively sparkling wine with 12.96 (SD 2.17) years, alcopops at an average age of 13.95 (SD 1.57) and hard liquor as the latest beverage at an average age of 14.12 (SD 1.71) years. In contrast, Turkish adolescents try beer at an age of 13.45 (SD 2.04), later wine or sparkling wine at an average age of 13.66 (SD 1.84), alcopops with 14.15 (SD 1.49) years and hard liquor at an average age of 14.08 (SD 1.74). Except for hard liquor the beverage specific first consumption age differs significantly between migration backgrounds as ANOVAs have shown (p < .001 for beer, wine, alcopops). However, the first consumption age of hard liquor is not significantly different between adolescents from different cultural backgrounds (F (2) = 3.54; p = .029). Comparison of the three cultural groups concerning the 12-month prevalence of alcohol consumption shows that almost one-fourth (24.7%) of the German 15-year-olds, less than 10% of the adolescents with Turkish roots (8.4%) and about one-fourth (24.4%) of the adolescents from the former Soviet Union drink alcohol regularly - at least once a week (Figure 7). Beverage-specific 12-month prevalence for the three most common cultural groups in the sample are shown in Table 2. There are significant differences between the three groups for each beverage (p < .001); adolescents with "Russian background" have the highest prevalence of regular consumption (at least once a week) of hard liquor (7.7%), alcopops (9.1%) and wine/sparkling wine (4.9%) followed closely by the German adolescents with very analogical drinking behavior who have the highest prevalence for regular beer consumption (at least once a week) of the three groups (22.5%). The proportion of adolescents who engaged in binge drinking (≥5 drinks on one occasion) in the last 30 days is 57.4% for German 15-year-olds, 23.6% for adolescents with Turkish roots and 56.2% for former Soviet Union emigrants. Looking at the broad range of nations included in the sample, it is evident that binge drinking is most common in adolescents with Western European or North-American background. As to be expected in adolescents who have cultural roots in Islamic-imprinted countries, binge drinking is less evident in general. A different picture opens, though, if one looks only at the adolescents who stated to have consumed alcohol in the last 30 days. Here the adolescents with the two highest binge drinking prevalence are descendents of Oriental-Islamic parents, meaning that if adolescents from these countries do consume alcohol, they almost always do it excessively. But also the descendents of Western, Eastern and South-European parents have a high prevalence of binge drinking when only consumers in the past 30 days are considered (for example former Yugoslavia, Netherlands, Spain) (see Figure 8). The frequency on how many days binge drinkers engage in this risky behavior varies significantly between binge drinkers from different cultural backgrounds (F (21) = 2,526; p < .001). The range is between 2.83 and 6.57 days in the past 30 days. Looking at the three biggest groups in the sample, it is obvious that German students and adolescents from the former Soviet Union act similarly, engaging in binge drinking on 4.58 (SD 4.13) or respectively 4.54 (SD 4.35) days in the last month. The 15-year-olds with Turkish roots who admit to engage in binge drinking had done so on 5.09 (SD 5.51) days during the last month. The three groups do not differ statistically significantly in this variable.

Bottom Line: Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7%) and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities) with a higher prevalence in rural areas.Common expectations concerning drinking behavior of adolescents of certain cultural backgrounds ('migrants with Russian background drink more'/'migrants from Arabic respectively Oriental-Islamic countries drink less') are only partly affirmed.Possibly, the degree of acculturation to the permissive German alcohol culture plays a role here.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, Psychiatric University Clinic Erlangen, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany. carolin.donath@uk-erlangen.de

ABSTRACT

Background: Binge drinking is a constant problem behavior in adolescents across Europe. Epidemiological investigations have been reported. However, epidemiological data on alcohol consumption of adolescents with different migration backgrounds are rare. Furthermore representative data on rural-urban comparison concerning alcohol consumption and binge drinking are lacking. The aims of the study are the investigation of alcohol consumption patterns with respect to a) urban-rural differences and b) differences according to migration background.

Methods: In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th. grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample). The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers respectively school directors had agreed to participate in the study. Weighting factors were specified and used to make up for regional and school-type specific differences in return rates. 27.4% of the adolescents surveyed have a migration background, whereby the Turkish culture is the largest group followed by adolescents who emigrated from former Soviet Union states. The sample includes seven large cities (over 500,000 inhabitants) (12.2%), independent smaller cities ("urban districts") (19.0%) and rural areas ("rural districts") (68.8%).

Results: Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7%) and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities) with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The same accounts for 12-month prevalence for alcohol consumption. 57.3% of the rural, respectively 45.9% of the urban adolescents engaged in binge drinking in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Students with migration background of the former Soviet Union showed mainly drinking behavior similar to that of German adolescents. Adolescents with Turkish roots had engaged in binge drinking in the last four weeks less frequently than adolescents of German descent (23.6% vs. 57.4%). However, in those adolescents who consumed alcohol in the last 4 weeks, binge drinking is very prominent across the cultural backgrounds.

Conclusions: Binge drinking is a common problem behavior in German adolescents. Obviously adolescents with rural residence have fewer alternatives for engaging in interesting leisure activities than adolescents living in cities. This might be one reason for the more problematic consumption patterns there. Common expectations concerning drinking behavior of adolescents of certain cultural backgrounds ('migrants with Russian background drink more'/'migrants from Arabic respectively Oriental-Islamic countries drink less') are only partly affirmed. Possibly, the degree of acculturation to the permissive German alcohol culture plays a role here.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus