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The effect of experimental warming on leaf functional traits, leaf structure and leaf biochemistry in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Jin B, Wang L, Wang J, Jiang KZ, Wang Y, Jiang XX, Ni CY, Wang YL, Teng NJ - BMC Plant Biol. (2011)

Bottom Line: The effects of experimental warming on leaf photosynthesis and respiration acclimation has been well studied so far, but relatively little information exists on the structural and biochemical responses to warming.However, a rise of 5°C produced negative effects, suggesting that lower levels of warming may benefit plants, especially those which belong to the same functional group as Arabidopsis, whereas higher levels of warming may produce negative affects.Finally, high SOD and CAT activities may enable plants grown at elevated temperatures to exhibit relatively high tolerance to temperature stress, thus alleviating the harmful effects of superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, PR China.

ABSTRACT

Background: The leaf is an important plant organ, and how it will respond to future global warming is a question that remains unanswered. The effects of experimental warming on leaf photosynthesis and respiration acclimation has been well studied so far, but relatively little information exists on the structural and biochemical responses to warming. However, such information is very important to better understand the plant responses to global warming. Therefore, we grew Arabidopsis thaliana at the three day/night temperatures of 23/18°C (ambient temperature), 25.5/20.5°C (elevated by 2.5°C) and 28/23°C (elevated by 5°C) to simulate the middle and the upper projected warming expected within the 21st century for this purpose.

Results: The 28/23°C treatment significantly reduced the life span, total biomass and total weight of seeds compared with the other two temperatures. Among the three temperature regimes, the concentrations of starch, chlorophyll, and proline were the lowest at 28/23°C, whereas the total weight of seeds, concentrations of chlorophyll and proline, stomatal density (SD), stomatal conductance (gs), net CO2 assimilation rate (A) and transpiration rate (E) were the highest at 25.5/20.5°C. Furthermore, the number of chloroplasts per cell and mitochondrial size were highest at 25.5/20.5°C and lowest at 28/23°C.

Conclusions: The conditions whereby the temperature was increased by 2.5°C were advantageous for Arabidopsis. However, a rise of 5°C produced negative effects, suggesting that lower levels of warming may benefit plants, especially those which belong to the same functional group as Arabidopsis, whereas higher levels of warming may produce negative affects. In addition, the increase in A under moderately warm conditions may be attributed to the increase in SD, chlorophyll content, and number of chloroplasts. Furthermore, starch accumulation in chloroplasts may be the main factor influencing chloroplast ultrastructure, and elevated temperature regulates plant respiration by probably affecting mitochondrial size. Finally, high SOD and CAT activities may enable plants grown at elevated temperatures to exhibit relatively high tolerance to temperature stress, thus alleviating the harmful effects of superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide.

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Growth curves of Arabidopsis grown at three temperatures. The growth stages 1.02, 1.1, 5.1, 6.00, 6.50, 6.90, and 9.70 correspond to "2 rosette leaves >1 mm in length", "10 rosette leaves >1 mm in length", "first flower buds visible", "first flower open", "50% of flowers to be produced have opened", "flowering complete", and "senescence complete", respectively (Please refer to Table two (p. 1501) and Figure two (p. 1502) of Boyes et al. 2001 [22]).
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Figure 1: Growth curves of Arabidopsis grown at three temperatures. The growth stages 1.02, 1.1, 5.1, 6.00, 6.50, 6.90, and 9.70 correspond to "2 rosette leaves >1 mm in length", "10 rosette leaves >1 mm in length", "first flower buds visible", "first flower open", "50% of flowers to be produced have opened", "flowering complete", and "senescence complete", respectively (Please refer to Table two (p. 1501) and Figure two (p. 1502) of Boyes et al. 2001 [22]).

Mentions: Experimental warming markedly enhanced Arabidopsis growth and shortened its life span (Figure 1, Table 1). For example, when compared with ambient temperature, elevated temperatures I and II significantly shortened the life span of Arabidopsis by approximately 7% and 21%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the plant biomass between ambient temperature and elevated temperature I, but elevated temperature II significantly reduced it by about 35% compared with the other two temperatures. Relative to ambient temperature, elevated temperature I significantly increased total weight of seeds by approximately 37%, whereas elevated temperature II reduced it by approximately 14%.


The effect of experimental warming on leaf functional traits, leaf structure and leaf biochemistry in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Jin B, Wang L, Wang J, Jiang KZ, Wang Y, Jiang XX, Ni CY, Wang YL, Teng NJ - BMC Plant Biol. (2011)

Growth curves of Arabidopsis grown at three temperatures. The growth stages 1.02, 1.1, 5.1, 6.00, 6.50, 6.90, and 9.70 correspond to "2 rosette leaves >1 mm in length", "10 rosette leaves >1 mm in length", "first flower buds visible", "first flower open", "50% of flowers to be produced have opened", "flowering complete", and "senescence complete", respectively (Please refer to Table two (p. 1501) and Figure two (p. 1502) of Boyes et al. 2001 [22]).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045891&req=5

Figure 1: Growth curves of Arabidopsis grown at three temperatures. The growth stages 1.02, 1.1, 5.1, 6.00, 6.50, 6.90, and 9.70 correspond to "2 rosette leaves >1 mm in length", "10 rosette leaves >1 mm in length", "first flower buds visible", "first flower open", "50% of flowers to be produced have opened", "flowering complete", and "senescence complete", respectively (Please refer to Table two (p. 1501) and Figure two (p. 1502) of Boyes et al. 2001 [22]).
Mentions: Experimental warming markedly enhanced Arabidopsis growth and shortened its life span (Figure 1, Table 1). For example, when compared with ambient temperature, elevated temperatures I and II significantly shortened the life span of Arabidopsis by approximately 7% and 21%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the plant biomass between ambient temperature and elevated temperature I, but elevated temperature II significantly reduced it by about 35% compared with the other two temperatures. Relative to ambient temperature, elevated temperature I significantly increased total weight of seeds by approximately 37%, whereas elevated temperature II reduced it by approximately 14%.

Bottom Line: The effects of experimental warming on leaf photosynthesis and respiration acclimation has been well studied so far, but relatively little information exists on the structural and biochemical responses to warming.However, a rise of 5°C produced negative effects, suggesting that lower levels of warming may benefit plants, especially those which belong to the same functional group as Arabidopsis, whereas higher levels of warming may produce negative affects.Finally, high SOD and CAT activities may enable plants grown at elevated temperatures to exhibit relatively high tolerance to temperature stress, thus alleviating the harmful effects of superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, PR China.

ABSTRACT

Background: The leaf is an important plant organ, and how it will respond to future global warming is a question that remains unanswered. The effects of experimental warming on leaf photosynthesis and respiration acclimation has been well studied so far, but relatively little information exists on the structural and biochemical responses to warming. However, such information is very important to better understand the plant responses to global warming. Therefore, we grew Arabidopsis thaliana at the three day/night temperatures of 23/18°C (ambient temperature), 25.5/20.5°C (elevated by 2.5°C) and 28/23°C (elevated by 5°C) to simulate the middle and the upper projected warming expected within the 21st century for this purpose.

Results: The 28/23°C treatment significantly reduced the life span, total biomass and total weight of seeds compared with the other two temperatures. Among the three temperature regimes, the concentrations of starch, chlorophyll, and proline were the lowest at 28/23°C, whereas the total weight of seeds, concentrations of chlorophyll and proline, stomatal density (SD), stomatal conductance (gs), net CO2 assimilation rate (A) and transpiration rate (E) were the highest at 25.5/20.5°C. Furthermore, the number of chloroplasts per cell and mitochondrial size were highest at 25.5/20.5°C and lowest at 28/23°C.

Conclusions: The conditions whereby the temperature was increased by 2.5°C were advantageous for Arabidopsis. However, a rise of 5°C produced negative effects, suggesting that lower levels of warming may benefit plants, especially those which belong to the same functional group as Arabidopsis, whereas higher levels of warming may produce negative affects. In addition, the increase in A under moderately warm conditions may be attributed to the increase in SD, chlorophyll content, and number of chloroplasts. Furthermore, starch accumulation in chloroplasts may be the main factor influencing chloroplast ultrastructure, and elevated temperature regulates plant respiration by probably affecting mitochondrial size. Finally, high SOD and CAT activities may enable plants grown at elevated temperatures to exhibit relatively high tolerance to temperature stress, thus alleviating the harmful effects of superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide.

Show MeSH