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Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism.

Sander PM, Christian A, Clauss M, Fechner R, Gee CT, Griebeler EM, Gunga HC, Hummel J, Mallison H, Perry SF, Preuschoft H, Rauhut OW, Remes K, Tütken T, Wings O, Witzel U - Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc (2011)

Bottom Line: Scaling relationships between gastrointestinal tract size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) suggest that sauropods compensated for the lack of particle reduction with long retention times, even at high uptake rates.The extensive pneumatization of the axial skeleton resulted from the evolution of an avian-style respiratory system, presumably at the base of Saurischia.An avian-style respiratory system would also have lowered the cost of breathing, reduced specific gravity, and may have been important in removing excess body heat.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn, Germany. martin.sander@uni-bonn.de

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Flow chart of the evolutionary cascade leading to sauropod gigantism. The green boxes contain the biological properties of sauropods, and the black arrows indicate primary evolutionary causation. Theropod predation pressure is depicted as a representative selection factor for body size increase. In addition to primary evolutionary causation, sauropod gigantism was also driven by evolutionary feedback loops (blue arrows). The blue boxes indicate the selective advantage in the feedback loop. The boxes on the black arrows show the selective advantages conferred on sauropods by the biological properties. BMR, basal metabolic rate.
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fig09: Flow chart of the evolutionary cascade leading to sauropod gigantism. The green boxes contain the biological properties of sauropods, and the black arrows indicate primary evolutionary causation. Theropod predation pressure is depicted as a representative selection factor for body size increase. In addition to primary evolutionary causation, sauropod gigantism was also driven by evolutionary feedback loops (blue arrows). The blue boxes indicate the selective advantage in the feedback loop. The boxes on the black arrows show the selective advantages conferred on sauropods by the biological properties. BMR, basal metabolic rate.

Mentions: We are now able to identify those hypotheses that may explain gigantism and those that probably do not, based on a current (2010) understanding. This leads to the recognition that the gigantism of sauropod dinosaurs was made possibly by a unique combination of two retained plesiomorphies and three key evolutionary innovations (Fig. 9).


Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism.

Sander PM, Christian A, Clauss M, Fechner R, Gee CT, Griebeler EM, Gunga HC, Hummel J, Mallison H, Perry SF, Preuschoft H, Rauhut OW, Remes K, Tütken T, Wings O, Witzel U - Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc (2011)

Flow chart of the evolutionary cascade leading to sauropod gigantism. The green boxes contain the biological properties of sauropods, and the black arrows indicate primary evolutionary causation. Theropod predation pressure is depicted as a representative selection factor for body size increase. In addition to primary evolutionary causation, sauropod gigantism was also driven by evolutionary feedback loops (blue arrows). The blue boxes indicate the selective advantage in the feedback loop. The boxes on the black arrows show the selective advantages conferred on sauropods by the biological properties. BMR, basal metabolic rate.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045712&req=5

fig09: Flow chart of the evolutionary cascade leading to sauropod gigantism. The green boxes contain the biological properties of sauropods, and the black arrows indicate primary evolutionary causation. Theropod predation pressure is depicted as a representative selection factor for body size increase. In addition to primary evolutionary causation, sauropod gigantism was also driven by evolutionary feedback loops (blue arrows). The blue boxes indicate the selective advantage in the feedback loop. The boxes on the black arrows show the selective advantages conferred on sauropods by the biological properties. BMR, basal metabolic rate.
Mentions: We are now able to identify those hypotheses that may explain gigantism and those that probably do not, based on a current (2010) understanding. This leads to the recognition that the gigantism of sauropod dinosaurs was made possibly by a unique combination of two retained plesiomorphies and three key evolutionary innovations (Fig. 9).

Bottom Line: Scaling relationships between gastrointestinal tract size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) suggest that sauropods compensated for the lack of particle reduction with long retention times, even at high uptake rates.The extensive pneumatization of the axial skeleton resulted from the evolution of an avian-style respiratory system, presumably at the base of Saurischia.An avian-style respiratory system would also have lowered the cost of breathing, reduced specific gravity, and may have been important in removing excess body heat.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn, Germany. martin.sander@uni-bonn.de

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus