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Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism.

Sander PM, Christian A, Clauss M, Fechner R, Gee CT, Griebeler EM, Gunga HC, Hummel J, Mallison H, Perry SF, Preuschoft H, Rauhut OW, Remes K, Tütken T, Wings O, Witzel U - Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc (2011)

Bottom Line: Scaling relationships between gastrointestinal tract size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) suggest that sauropods compensated for the lack of particle reduction with long retention times, even at high uptake rates.The extensive pneumatization of the axial skeleton resulted from the evolution of an avian-style respiratory system, presumably at the base of Saurischia.An avian-style respiratory system would also have lowered the cost of breathing, reduced specific gravity, and may have been important in removing excess body heat.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn, Germany. martin.sander@uni-bonn.de

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The sauropod body plan and body size. The reconstruction of Brachiosaurus brancai (recently renamed Giraffatitan, see Taylor, 2009) is based on the mounted skeleton in the Natural History Museum Berlin. Sauroposeidon from the Lower Cretaceous of Oklahoma (USA), one of the recently described truly gigantic sauropods, is only known from a string of four neck vertebrae. Based on these, the animal can be estimated to have been about 30% larger in linear dimension than the Berlin Brachiosaurus. Modified from Wedel et al. (2000b).
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fig05: The sauropod body plan and body size. The reconstruction of Brachiosaurus brancai (recently renamed Giraffatitan, see Taylor, 2009) is based on the mounted skeleton in the Natural History Museum Berlin. Sauroposeidon from the Lower Cretaceous of Oklahoma (USA), one of the recently described truly gigantic sauropods, is only known from a string of four neck vertebrae. Based on these, the animal can be estimated to have been about 30% larger in linear dimension than the Berlin Brachiosaurus. Modified from Wedel et al. (2000b).

Mentions: The sauropod body plan is unique among terrestrial tetrapods: a body superficially similar to that of proboscideans (elephants) among mammals is combined with a very small head on a very long neck and a tail, considerably exceeding those of other dinosaurs in relative (and absolute) length (Figs 1, 5). The small and light-weight skull is biomechanically linked to the long neck because of the leverage exerted by the head on the neck (Witzel & Preuschoft, 2005; Witzel, 2007; Witzel et al., in press).


Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism.

Sander PM, Christian A, Clauss M, Fechner R, Gee CT, Griebeler EM, Gunga HC, Hummel J, Mallison H, Perry SF, Preuschoft H, Rauhut OW, Remes K, Tütken T, Wings O, Witzel U - Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc (2011)

The sauropod body plan and body size. The reconstruction of Brachiosaurus brancai (recently renamed Giraffatitan, see Taylor, 2009) is based on the mounted skeleton in the Natural History Museum Berlin. Sauroposeidon from the Lower Cretaceous of Oklahoma (USA), one of the recently described truly gigantic sauropods, is only known from a string of four neck vertebrae. Based on these, the animal can be estimated to have been about 30% larger in linear dimension than the Berlin Brachiosaurus. Modified from Wedel et al. (2000b).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045712&req=5

fig05: The sauropod body plan and body size. The reconstruction of Brachiosaurus brancai (recently renamed Giraffatitan, see Taylor, 2009) is based on the mounted skeleton in the Natural History Museum Berlin. Sauroposeidon from the Lower Cretaceous of Oklahoma (USA), one of the recently described truly gigantic sauropods, is only known from a string of four neck vertebrae. Based on these, the animal can be estimated to have been about 30% larger in linear dimension than the Berlin Brachiosaurus. Modified from Wedel et al. (2000b).
Mentions: The sauropod body plan is unique among terrestrial tetrapods: a body superficially similar to that of proboscideans (elephants) among mammals is combined with a very small head on a very long neck and a tail, considerably exceeding those of other dinosaurs in relative (and absolute) length (Figs 1, 5). The small and light-weight skull is biomechanically linked to the long neck because of the leverage exerted by the head on the neck (Witzel & Preuschoft, 2005; Witzel, 2007; Witzel et al., in press).

Bottom Line: Scaling relationships between gastrointestinal tract size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) suggest that sauropods compensated for the lack of particle reduction with long retention times, even at high uptake rates.The extensive pneumatization of the axial skeleton resulted from the evolution of an avian-style respiratory system, presumably at the base of Saurischia.An avian-style respiratory system would also have lowered the cost of breathing, reduced specific gravity, and may have been important in removing excess body heat.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn, Germany. martin.sander@uni-bonn.de

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus