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Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism.

Sander PM, Christian A, Clauss M, Fechner R, Gee CT, Griebeler EM, Gunga HC, Hummel J, Mallison H, Perry SF, Preuschoft H, Rauhut OW, Remes K, Tütken T, Wings O, Witzel U - Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc (2011)

Bottom Line: Scaling relationships between gastrointestinal tract size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) suggest that sauropods compensated for the lack of particle reduction with long retention times, even at high uptake rates.The extensive pneumatization of the axial skeleton resulted from the evolution of an avian-style respiratory system, presumably at the base of Saurischia.An avian-style respiratory system would also have lowered the cost of breathing, reduced specific gravity, and may have been important in removing excess body heat.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn, Germany. martin.sander@uni-bonn.de

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Simplified sauropod phylogeny compiled from Wilson (2002), Upchurch et al. (2007a), Yates (2007), Allain & Aquesbi (2008), and Remes et al. (2009). Only well-known taxa whose position in the phylogeny is relatively stable are shown. Arrows indicate stem-based taxa, and dots indicate node-based taxa.
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fig04: Simplified sauropod phylogeny compiled from Wilson (2002), Upchurch et al. (2007a), Yates (2007), Allain & Aquesbi (2008), and Remes et al. (2009). Only well-known taxa whose position in the phylogeny is relatively stable are shown. Arrows indicate stem-based taxa, and dots indicate node-based taxa.

Mentions: The prerequisite for all enquiries into the evolution of body size, and gigantism in particular, are robust phylogenetic hypotheses (see Gould & MacFadden, 2004). These have only become available for sauropods in the last 15 years, through the work of J.A. Wilson (Wilson, 2002, 2005; Wilson & Upchurch, 2009; see also Wilson & Sereno, 1998), P. Upchurch (Upchurch et al., 2004; see also Upchurch, 1995, 1998, 1999), and K. Curry Rogers on titanosaurs (Curry Rogers, 2005; see also Salgado, Coria & Calvo, 1997). These hypotheses largely agree on the general aspects of sauropod phylogeny (Fig. 4) with a consensus now having been reached (Wilson & Upchurch, 2009). Also, Taylor et al. (in press) define Sauropoda as all taxa closer to Saltasaurus than to Melanorosaurus, and hopefully this definition will lead to some systematic stability.


Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism.

Sander PM, Christian A, Clauss M, Fechner R, Gee CT, Griebeler EM, Gunga HC, Hummel J, Mallison H, Perry SF, Preuschoft H, Rauhut OW, Remes K, Tütken T, Wings O, Witzel U - Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc (2011)

Simplified sauropod phylogeny compiled from Wilson (2002), Upchurch et al. (2007a), Yates (2007), Allain & Aquesbi (2008), and Remes et al. (2009). Only well-known taxa whose position in the phylogeny is relatively stable are shown. Arrows indicate stem-based taxa, and dots indicate node-based taxa.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045712&req=5

fig04: Simplified sauropod phylogeny compiled from Wilson (2002), Upchurch et al. (2007a), Yates (2007), Allain & Aquesbi (2008), and Remes et al. (2009). Only well-known taxa whose position in the phylogeny is relatively stable are shown. Arrows indicate stem-based taxa, and dots indicate node-based taxa.
Mentions: The prerequisite for all enquiries into the evolution of body size, and gigantism in particular, are robust phylogenetic hypotheses (see Gould & MacFadden, 2004). These have only become available for sauropods in the last 15 years, through the work of J.A. Wilson (Wilson, 2002, 2005; Wilson & Upchurch, 2009; see also Wilson & Sereno, 1998), P. Upchurch (Upchurch et al., 2004; see also Upchurch, 1995, 1998, 1999), and K. Curry Rogers on titanosaurs (Curry Rogers, 2005; see also Salgado, Coria & Calvo, 1997). These hypotheses largely agree on the general aspects of sauropod phylogeny (Fig. 4) with a consensus now having been reached (Wilson & Upchurch, 2009). Also, Taylor et al. (in press) define Sauropoda as all taxa closer to Saltasaurus than to Melanorosaurus, and hopefully this definition will lead to some systematic stability.

Bottom Line: Scaling relationships between gastrointestinal tract size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) suggest that sauropods compensated for the lack of particle reduction with long retention times, even at high uptake rates.The extensive pneumatization of the axial skeleton resulted from the evolution of an avian-style respiratory system, presumably at the base of Saurischia.An avian-style respiratory system would also have lowered the cost of breathing, reduced specific gravity, and may have been important in removing excess body heat.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn, Germany. martin.sander@uni-bonn.de

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus