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The effects of early exercise on brain damage and recovery after focal cerebral infarction in rats.

Matsuda F, Sakakima H, Yoshida Y - Acta Physiol (Oxf) (2011)

Bottom Line: We investigated whether treadmill running could reduce brain damage and enhance the expression of midkine (MK) and nerve growth factor (NGF), increase angiogenesis and decrease the expression of caspase-3.The infarct volume in the exercised group (12.4 ± 0.8%) subjected to treadmill running for 28 days was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (19.8 ± 4.2%, P < 0.01).Our findings show that treadmill exercise improves motor behaviour and reduces neurological deficits and infarct volume, suggesting that it may aid recovery from central nervous system injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan. fumiyo@health.nop.kagoshima-u.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Aim: Exercise can be used to enhance neuroplasticity and facilitate motor recovery after a stroke in rats. We investigated whether treadmill running could reduce brain damage and enhance the expression of midkine (MK) and nerve growth factor (NGF), increase angiogenesis and decrease the expression of caspase-3.

Methods: Seventy-seven Wistar rats were split into three experimental groups (ischaemia-control: 36, ischaemia-exercise: 36, sham-exercise: 5). Stroke was induced by 90-min left middle cerebral artery occlusion using an intraluminal filament. Beginning on the following day, the rats were made to run on a treadmill for 20 min once a day for a maximum of 28 consecutive days. Functional recovery after ischaemia was assessed using the beamwalking test and a neurological evaluation scale in all rats. Infarct volume, and the expression of MK, NGF, anti-platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), and caspase-3 were evaluated at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the induction of ischaemia.

Results: Over time motor coordination and neurological deficits improved more in the exercised group than in the non-exercised group. The infarct volume in the exercised group (12.4 ± 0.8%) subjected to treadmill running for 28 days was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (19.8 ± 4.2%, P < 0.01). The cellular expression levels of MK, NGF and PECAM-1 were significantly increased while that of caspase-3 was decreased in the peri-infarct area of the exercised rats.

Conclusions: Our findings show that treadmill exercise improves motor behaviour and reduces neurological deficits and infarct volume, suggesting that it may aid recovery from central nervous system injury.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Representative photographs of anti-platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1)-positive cells. Brain sections were immunohistochemically stained for PECAM-1 as an angiogenesis marker in the ipsilateral (a and b) and contralateral (c and d) frontoparietal cortices including the motor cortex 3 days after ischaemic injury in the ischaemia-exercise (IE) (a and c) and ischaemia-non-exercised control (IC) groups (b and d). Changes in the PECAM-1-immunoreactive areas on the infarction side after ischaemia (e) are shown. Quantitative analysis was conducted on PECAM-1 immunoreactive cells from the motor cortex on the infarct side in the IE and IC groups for 28 days after ischaemia that indicated the occurrence of angiogenesis. anova analysis demonstrated a significant increase in the number of PECAM-1 labelled cells after exercise; *P < 0.05 (compared with IC group value), **P < 0.01 (compared with IC group value). Values shown are mean ± SD (n = 6). Scale bar = 50 μm.
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fig06: Representative photographs of anti-platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1)-positive cells. Brain sections were immunohistochemically stained for PECAM-1 as an angiogenesis marker in the ipsilateral (a and b) and contralateral (c and d) frontoparietal cortices including the motor cortex 3 days after ischaemic injury in the ischaemia-exercise (IE) (a and c) and ischaemia-non-exercised control (IC) groups (b and d). Changes in the PECAM-1-immunoreactive areas on the infarction side after ischaemia (e) are shown. Quantitative analysis was conducted on PECAM-1 immunoreactive cells from the motor cortex on the infarct side in the IE and IC groups for 28 days after ischaemia that indicated the occurrence of angiogenesis. anova analysis demonstrated a significant increase in the number of PECAM-1 labelled cells after exercise; *P < 0.05 (compared with IC group value), **P < 0.01 (compared with IC group value). Values shown are mean ± SD (n = 6). Scale bar = 50 μm.

Mentions: Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule immunocytochemistry was used to label brain microvessels. PECAM-1-immunopositive cells were consistently detected in the ipsilateral (Fig. 6a,b) and contralateral (Fig. 6c,d) cerebral hemispheres in all groups. In particular, PECAM-1-immunopositive cells were markedly increased in area over a widespread region around the infarct on the ipsilateral side. Quantitative analysis of frontoparietal PECAM-1-immunopositive cells was performed by counting the area of PECAM-1-immunostained microvessels. Two-factor factorial anova revealed significant effects of day (F5,60 = 53.82, P<0.0001), group (F1,60 = 147.25, P<0.0001), and the interaction between day and group (F10,60 = 26.1, P<0.0001). Subsequent one-way anova (day) revealed a significant difference among groups in the area of PECAM-1-immunopositive cells at 3 days (P<0.001), 7 days (P=0.014) and 14 days (P=0.041), but not at other time points (data not shown). In particular, the area of PECAM-1-immunopositive cells was significantly increased in the cells around the infarct in the IE group at 3, 7 and 14 days after surgery (Fig. 6e).


The effects of early exercise on brain damage and recovery after focal cerebral infarction in rats.

Matsuda F, Sakakima H, Yoshida Y - Acta Physiol (Oxf) (2011)

Representative photographs of anti-platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1)-positive cells. Brain sections were immunohistochemically stained for PECAM-1 as an angiogenesis marker in the ipsilateral (a and b) and contralateral (c and d) frontoparietal cortices including the motor cortex 3 days after ischaemic injury in the ischaemia-exercise (IE) (a and c) and ischaemia-non-exercised control (IC) groups (b and d). Changes in the PECAM-1-immunoreactive areas on the infarction side after ischaemia (e) are shown. Quantitative analysis was conducted on PECAM-1 immunoreactive cells from the motor cortex on the infarct side in the IE and IC groups for 28 days after ischaemia that indicated the occurrence of angiogenesis. anova analysis demonstrated a significant increase in the number of PECAM-1 labelled cells after exercise; *P < 0.05 (compared with IC group value), **P < 0.01 (compared with IC group value). Values shown are mean ± SD (n = 6). Scale bar = 50 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045711&req=5

fig06: Representative photographs of anti-platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1)-positive cells. Brain sections were immunohistochemically stained for PECAM-1 as an angiogenesis marker in the ipsilateral (a and b) and contralateral (c and d) frontoparietal cortices including the motor cortex 3 days after ischaemic injury in the ischaemia-exercise (IE) (a and c) and ischaemia-non-exercised control (IC) groups (b and d). Changes in the PECAM-1-immunoreactive areas on the infarction side after ischaemia (e) are shown. Quantitative analysis was conducted on PECAM-1 immunoreactive cells from the motor cortex on the infarct side in the IE and IC groups for 28 days after ischaemia that indicated the occurrence of angiogenesis. anova analysis demonstrated a significant increase in the number of PECAM-1 labelled cells after exercise; *P < 0.05 (compared with IC group value), **P < 0.01 (compared with IC group value). Values shown are mean ± SD (n = 6). Scale bar = 50 μm.
Mentions: Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule immunocytochemistry was used to label brain microvessels. PECAM-1-immunopositive cells were consistently detected in the ipsilateral (Fig. 6a,b) and contralateral (Fig. 6c,d) cerebral hemispheres in all groups. In particular, PECAM-1-immunopositive cells were markedly increased in area over a widespread region around the infarct on the ipsilateral side. Quantitative analysis of frontoparietal PECAM-1-immunopositive cells was performed by counting the area of PECAM-1-immunostained microvessels. Two-factor factorial anova revealed significant effects of day (F5,60 = 53.82, P<0.0001), group (F1,60 = 147.25, P<0.0001), and the interaction between day and group (F10,60 = 26.1, P<0.0001). Subsequent one-way anova (day) revealed a significant difference among groups in the area of PECAM-1-immunopositive cells at 3 days (P<0.001), 7 days (P=0.014) and 14 days (P=0.041), but not at other time points (data not shown). In particular, the area of PECAM-1-immunopositive cells was significantly increased in the cells around the infarct in the IE group at 3, 7 and 14 days after surgery (Fig. 6e).

Bottom Line: We investigated whether treadmill running could reduce brain damage and enhance the expression of midkine (MK) and nerve growth factor (NGF), increase angiogenesis and decrease the expression of caspase-3.The infarct volume in the exercised group (12.4 ± 0.8%) subjected to treadmill running for 28 days was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (19.8 ± 4.2%, P < 0.01).Our findings show that treadmill exercise improves motor behaviour and reduces neurological deficits and infarct volume, suggesting that it may aid recovery from central nervous system injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan. fumiyo@health.nop.kagoshima-u.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Aim: Exercise can be used to enhance neuroplasticity and facilitate motor recovery after a stroke in rats. We investigated whether treadmill running could reduce brain damage and enhance the expression of midkine (MK) and nerve growth factor (NGF), increase angiogenesis and decrease the expression of caspase-3.

Methods: Seventy-seven Wistar rats were split into three experimental groups (ischaemia-control: 36, ischaemia-exercise: 36, sham-exercise: 5). Stroke was induced by 90-min left middle cerebral artery occlusion using an intraluminal filament. Beginning on the following day, the rats were made to run on a treadmill for 20 min once a day for a maximum of 28 consecutive days. Functional recovery after ischaemia was assessed using the beamwalking test and a neurological evaluation scale in all rats. Infarct volume, and the expression of MK, NGF, anti-platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), and caspase-3 were evaluated at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the induction of ischaemia.

Results: Over time motor coordination and neurological deficits improved more in the exercised group than in the non-exercised group. The infarct volume in the exercised group (12.4 ± 0.8%) subjected to treadmill running for 28 days was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (19.8 ± 4.2%, P < 0.01). The cellular expression levels of MK, NGF and PECAM-1 were significantly increased while that of caspase-3 was decreased in the peri-infarct area of the exercised rats.

Conclusions: Our findings show that treadmill exercise improves motor behaviour and reduces neurological deficits and infarct volume, suggesting that it may aid recovery from central nervous system injury.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus