Limits...
The effects of early exercise on brain damage and recovery after focal cerebral infarction in rats.

Matsuda F, Sakakima H, Yoshida Y - Acta Physiol (Oxf) (2011)

Bottom Line: We investigated whether treadmill running could reduce brain damage and enhance the expression of midkine (MK) and nerve growth factor (NGF), increase angiogenesis and decrease the expression of caspase-3.The infarct volume in the exercised group (12.4 ± 0.8%) subjected to treadmill running for 28 days was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (19.8 ± 4.2%, P < 0.01).Our findings show that treadmill exercise improves motor behaviour and reduces neurological deficits and infarct volume, suggesting that it may aid recovery from central nervous system injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan. fumiyo@health.nop.kagoshima-u.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Aim: Exercise can be used to enhance neuroplasticity and facilitate motor recovery after a stroke in rats. We investigated whether treadmill running could reduce brain damage and enhance the expression of midkine (MK) and nerve growth factor (NGF), increase angiogenesis and decrease the expression of caspase-3.

Methods: Seventy-seven Wistar rats were split into three experimental groups (ischaemia-control: 36, ischaemia-exercise: 36, sham-exercise: 5). Stroke was induced by 90-min left middle cerebral artery occlusion using an intraluminal filament. Beginning on the following day, the rats were made to run on a treadmill for 20 min once a day for a maximum of 28 consecutive days. Functional recovery after ischaemia was assessed using the beamwalking test and a neurological evaluation scale in all rats. Infarct volume, and the expression of MK, NGF, anti-platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), and caspase-3 were evaluated at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the induction of ischaemia.

Results: Over time motor coordination and neurological deficits improved more in the exercised group than in the non-exercised group. The infarct volume in the exercised group (12.4 ± 0.8%) subjected to treadmill running for 28 days was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (19.8 ± 4.2%, P < 0.01). The cellular expression levels of MK, NGF and PECAM-1 were significantly increased while that of caspase-3 was decreased in the peri-infarct area of the exercised rats.

Conclusions: Our findings show that treadmill exercise improves motor behaviour and reduces neurological deficits and infarct volume, suggesting that it may aid recovery from central nervous system injury.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Representative photographs of infarctions after 28 days. Haematoxylin & eosin stained brains of ischaemia-exercise (IE) (a) and ischaemia-non-exercised control (IC) (b) groups after 28 days is shown. The brain infarcts were mainly observed in the cerebral cortex including the dorsolateral and lateral cortices and lateral striatum. The section shown is seen from the frontal tip. The damaged cerebral tissue underwent liquefaction and is missing in both groups (asterisk). Regarding the changes in the infarct volume of rats with or without treadmill exercise after ischaemia (c), in the rats that were subjected to forced running for 28 days, the mean infarct volume was significantly smaller than that in the controls. Values are shown as mean ± standard deviations (SD). *P < 0.05 (compared with control groups, n = 6).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045711&req=5

fig03: Representative photographs of infarctions after 28 days. Haematoxylin & eosin stained brains of ischaemia-exercise (IE) (a) and ischaemia-non-exercised control (IC) (b) groups after 28 days is shown. The brain infarcts were mainly observed in the cerebral cortex including the dorsolateral and lateral cortices and lateral striatum. The section shown is seen from the frontal tip. The damaged cerebral tissue underwent liquefaction and is missing in both groups (asterisk). Regarding the changes in the infarct volume of rats with or without treadmill exercise after ischaemia (c), in the rats that were subjected to forced running for 28 days, the mean infarct volume was significantly smaller than that in the controls. Values are shown as mean ± standard deviations (SD). *P < 0.05 (compared with control groups, n = 6).

Mentions: Histological analysis with TTC staining was performed to determine the extent of brain infarction at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after ischaemia. Areas of damage were observed by HE staining, mainly in the cerebral cortex including the dorsolateral and lateral cortices, as well as in the lateral striatum (Fig. 3a,b). Although our analyses failed to detect any interaction between group and day (F5,60 = 0.753, P=0.58), a subsequent one-way anova (day) revealed a significant difference among groups in infarct volume at 28 days (F1,10 = 4.60, P=0.002) but not at other time points (data not shown). At 28 days, the infarct volume in the IE group (12.4 ± 0.8%) was significantly decreased compared with that in the IC group (19.8 ± 4.2%) (Fig. 3c). This 38% reduction was highly significant (P<0.01). The sham-operated rats exhibited no infarction (data not shown).


The effects of early exercise on brain damage and recovery after focal cerebral infarction in rats.

Matsuda F, Sakakima H, Yoshida Y - Acta Physiol (Oxf) (2011)

Representative photographs of infarctions after 28 days. Haematoxylin & eosin stained brains of ischaemia-exercise (IE) (a) and ischaemia-non-exercised control (IC) (b) groups after 28 days is shown. The brain infarcts were mainly observed in the cerebral cortex including the dorsolateral and lateral cortices and lateral striatum. The section shown is seen from the frontal tip. The damaged cerebral tissue underwent liquefaction and is missing in both groups (asterisk). Regarding the changes in the infarct volume of rats with or without treadmill exercise after ischaemia (c), in the rats that were subjected to forced running for 28 days, the mean infarct volume was significantly smaller than that in the controls. Values are shown as mean ± standard deviations (SD). *P < 0.05 (compared with control groups, n = 6).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045711&req=5

fig03: Representative photographs of infarctions after 28 days. Haematoxylin & eosin stained brains of ischaemia-exercise (IE) (a) and ischaemia-non-exercised control (IC) (b) groups after 28 days is shown. The brain infarcts were mainly observed in the cerebral cortex including the dorsolateral and lateral cortices and lateral striatum. The section shown is seen from the frontal tip. The damaged cerebral tissue underwent liquefaction and is missing in both groups (asterisk). Regarding the changes in the infarct volume of rats with or without treadmill exercise after ischaemia (c), in the rats that were subjected to forced running for 28 days, the mean infarct volume was significantly smaller than that in the controls. Values are shown as mean ± standard deviations (SD). *P < 0.05 (compared with control groups, n = 6).
Mentions: Histological analysis with TTC staining was performed to determine the extent of brain infarction at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after ischaemia. Areas of damage were observed by HE staining, mainly in the cerebral cortex including the dorsolateral and lateral cortices, as well as in the lateral striatum (Fig. 3a,b). Although our analyses failed to detect any interaction between group and day (F5,60 = 0.753, P=0.58), a subsequent one-way anova (day) revealed a significant difference among groups in infarct volume at 28 days (F1,10 = 4.60, P=0.002) but not at other time points (data not shown). At 28 days, the infarct volume in the IE group (12.4 ± 0.8%) was significantly decreased compared with that in the IC group (19.8 ± 4.2%) (Fig. 3c). This 38% reduction was highly significant (P<0.01). The sham-operated rats exhibited no infarction (data not shown).

Bottom Line: We investigated whether treadmill running could reduce brain damage and enhance the expression of midkine (MK) and nerve growth factor (NGF), increase angiogenesis and decrease the expression of caspase-3.The infarct volume in the exercised group (12.4 ± 0.8%) subjected to treadmill running for 28 days was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (19.8 ± 4.2%, P < 0.01).Our findings show that treadmill exercise improves motor behaviour and reduces neurological deficits and infarct volume, suggesting that it may aid recovery from central nervous system injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan. fumiyo@health.nop.kagoshima-u.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Aim: Exercise can be used to enhance neuroplasticity and facilitate motor recovery after a stroke in rats. We investigated whether treadmill running could reduce brain damage and enhance the expression of midkine (MK) and nerve growth factor (NGF), increase angiogenesis and decrease the expression of caspase-3.

Methods: Seventy-seven Wistar rats were split into three experimental groups (ischaemia-control: 36, ischaemia-exercise: 36, sham-exercise: 5). Stroke was induced by 90-min left middle cerebral artery occlusion using an intraluminal filament. Beginning on the following day, the rats were made to run on a treadmill for 20 min once a day for a maximum of 28 consecutive days. Functional recovery after ischaemia was assessed using the beamwalking test and a neurological evaluation scale in all rats. Infarct volume, and the expression of MK, NGF, anti-platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), and caspase-3 were evaluated at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the induction of ischaemia.

Results: Over time motor coordination and neurological deficits improved more in the exercised group than in the non-exercised group. The infarct volume in the exercised group (12.4 ± 0.8%) subjected to treadmill running for 28 days was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (19.8 ± 4.2%, P < 0.01). The cellular expression levels of MK, NGF and PECAM-1 were significantly increased while that of caspase-3 was decreased in the peri-infarct area of the exercised rats.

Conclusions: Our findings show that treadmill exercise improves motor behaviour and reduces neurological deficits and infarct volume, suggesting that it may aid recovery from central nervous system injury.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus