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The effects of early exercise on brain damage and recovery after focal cerebral infarction in rats.

Matsuda F, Sakakima H, Yoshida Y - Acta Physiol (Oxf) (2011)

Bottom Line: We investigated whether treadmill running could reduce brain damage and enhance the expression of midkine (MK) and nerve growth factor (NGF), increase angiogenesis and decrease the expression of caspase-3.The infarct volume in the exercised group (12.4 ± 0.8%) subjected to treadmill running for 28 days was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (19.8 ± 4.2%, P < 0.01).Our findings show that treadmill exercise improves motor behaviour and reduces neurological deficits and infarct volume, suggesting that it may aid recovery from central nervous system injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan. fumiyo@health.nop.kagoshima-u.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Aim: Exercise can be used to enhance neuroplasticity and facilitate motor recovery after a stroke in rats. We investigated whether treadmill running could reduce brain damage and enhance the expression of midkine (MK) and nerve growth factor (NGF), increase angiogenesis and decrease the expression of caspase-3.

Methods: Seventy-seven Wistar rats were split into three experimental groups (ischaemia-control: 36, ischaemia-exercise: 36, sham-exercise: 5). Stroke was induced by 90-min left middle cerebral artery occlusion using an intraluminal filament. Beginning on the following day, the rats were made to run on a treadmill for 20 min once a day for a maximum of 28 consecutive days. Functional recovery after ischaemia was assessed using the beamwalking test and a neurological evaluation scale in all rats. Infarct volume, and the expression of MK, NGF, anti-platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), and caspase-3 were evaluated at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the induction of ischaemia.

Results: Over time motor coordination and neurological deficits improved more in the exercised group than in the non-exercised group. The infarct volume in the exercised group (12.4 ± 0.8%) subjected to treadmill running for 28 days was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (19.8 ± 4.2%, P < 0.01). The cellular expression levels of MK, NGF and PECAM-1 were significantly increased while that of caspase-3 was decreased in the peri-infarct area of the exercised rats.

Conclusions: Our findings show that treadmill exercise improves motor behaviour and reduces neurological deficits and infarct volume, suggesting that it may aid recovery from central nervous system injury.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean motor behaviour and neurological scores of the rats after surgery. Changes in the motor function (a) and neurological (b) scores indicate the outcome of the ischaemic animals in the ischaemia-exercise (IE) (▪), ischaemia-non-exercised control (IC) (□). The motor behaviour and neurological score for the rats of the SE group were 5 and 0, respectively throughout the 28-day period of post-operative examination. The motor function score decreased after ischaemia, but improved over time. The neurological score increased after ischaemia, but gradually decreased to its value before ischaemia. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in motor function and neurological deficit between the two groups after 28 days. Values are shown as median with quartiles. Small box showed median value, and large box showed the 1st and the 3rd quartiles. n = 6 at each time point at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days in IE and IC groups. n = 5 in sham-exercise (SE) group. n = 36 at pre-operation in IE and IC groups. *P < 0.05 (compared with control groups).
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fig02: Mean motor behaviour and neurological scores of the rats after surgery. Changes in the motor function (a) and neurological (b) scores indicate the outcome of the ischaemic animals in the ischaemia-exercise (IE) (▪), ischaemia-non-exercised control (IC) (□). The motor behaviour and neurological score for the rats of the SE group were 5 and 0, respectively throughout the 28-day period of post-operative examination. The motor function score decreased after ischaemia, but improved over time. The neurological score increased after ischaemia, but gradually decreased to its value before ischaemia. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in motor function and neurological deficit between the two groups after 28 days. Values are shown as median with quartiles. Small box showed median value, and large box showed the 1st and the 3rd quartiles. n = 6 at each time point at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days in IE and IC groups. n = 5 in sham-exercise (SE) group. n = 36 at pre-operation in IE and IC groups. *P < 0.05 (compared with control groups).

Mentions: Changes in motor behaviour and the results of neurological assessments are shown in Figure 2. In the evaluation of motor behaviour, the score of all animals before surgery was 5 (Fig. 2a). The rats of the IE and IC groups exhibited uniform, severe motor impairment at 1 day after the induction of ischaemia, as evaluated by beam-walking ability. Functional recovery was recorded at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the surgery. The rats of the IE group exhibited continuous functional recovery in the beam-walking test during the 28 days of the study. The score for the rats of the SE group was 5 throughout the 28-day period of post-operative examination, while that in the IC group was 0–1 for the first 7 post-operative days and 1–2 for the remaining 28 days. The improvement in motor behavioural score in the IE group occurred earlier than that in the IC group from 7 days after the induction of ischaemia. Two-factor factorial anova revealed significant effects of day (F5,65 = 15.125, P<0.0001), group (F2,65 = 565.875, P<0.0001) and the interaction between day and group (F10,65 = 5.452, P<0.0001). Subsequent one-way anova (day) revealed a significant difference among groups at 28 days (F2,14 = 31.969, P<0.0001) but not at other time points. In particular, at 28 days after ischaemia, Dunnett’s post hoc test revealed a significant difference between the IE and IC groups (P<0.05).


The effects of early exercise on brain damage and recovery after focal cerebral infarction in rats.

Matsuda F, Sakakima H, Yoshida Y - Acta Physiol (Oxf) (2011)

Mean motor behaviour and neurological scores of the rats after surgery. Changes in the motor function (a) and neurological (b) scores indicate the outcome of the ischaemic animals in the ischaemia-exercise (IE) (▪), ischaemia-non-exercised control (IC) (□). The motor behaviour and neurological score for the rats of the SE group were 5 and 0, respectively throughout the 28-day period of post-operative examination. The motor function score decreased after ischaemia, but improved over time. The neurological score increased after ischaemia, but gradually decreased to its value before ischaemia. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in motor function and neurological deficit between the two groups after 28 days. Values are shown as median with quartiles. Small box showed median value, and large box showed the 1st and the 3rd quartiles. n = 6 at each time point at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days in IE and IC groups. n = 5 in sham-exercise (SE) group. n = 36 at pre-operation in IE and IC groups. *P < 0.05 (compared with control groups).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045711&req=5

fig02: Mean motor behaviour and neurological scores of the rats after surgery. Changes in the motor function (a) and neurological (b) scores indicate the outcome of the ischaemic animals in the ischaemia-exercise (IE) (▪), ischaemia-non-exercised control (IC) (□). The motor behaviour and neurological score for the rats of the SE group were 5 and 0, respectively throughout the 28-day period of post-operative examination. The motor function score decreased after ischaemia, but improved over time. The neurological score increased after ischaemia, but gradually decreased to its value before ischaemia. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in motor function and neurological deficit between the two groups after 28 days. Values are shown as median with quartiles. Small box showed median value, and large box showed the 1st and the 3rd quartiles. n = 6 at each time point at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days in IE and IC groups. n = 5 in sham-exercise (SE) group. n = 36 at pre-operation in IE and IC groups. *P < 0.05 (compared with control groups).
Mentions: Changes in motor behaviour and the results of neurological assessments are shown in Figure 2. In the evaluation of motor behaviour, the score of all animals before surgery was 5 (Fig. 2a). The rats of the IE and IC groups exhibited uniform, severe motor impairment at 1 day after the induction of ischaemia, as evaluated by beam-walking ability. Functional recovery was recorded at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the surgery. The rats of the IE group exhibited continuous functional recovery in the beam-walking test during the 28 days of the study. The score for the rats of the SE group was 5 throughout the 28-day period of post-operative examination, while that in the IC group was 0–1 for the first 7 post-operative days and 1–2 for the remaining 28 days. The improvement in motor behavioural score in the IE group occurred earlier than that in the IC group from 7 days after the induction of ischaemia. Two-factor factorial anova revealed significant effects of day (F5,65 = 15.125, P<0.0001), group (F2,65 = 565.875, P<0.0001) and the interaction between day and group (F10,65 = 5.452, P<0.0001). Subsequent one-way anova (day) revealed a significant difference among groups at 28 days (F2,14 = 31.969, P<0.0001) but not at other time points. In particular, at 28 days after ischaemia, Dunnett’s post hoc test revealed a significant difference between the IE and IC groups (P<0.05).

Bottom Line: We investigated whether treadmill running could reduce brain damage and enhance the expression of midkine (MK) and nerve growth factor (NGF), increase angiogenesis and decrease the expression of caspase-3.The infarct volume in the exercised group (12.4 ± 0.8%) subjected to treadmill running for 28 days was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (19.8 ± 4.2%, P < 0.01).Our findings show that treadmill exercise improves motor behaviour and reduces neurological deficits and infarct volume, suggesting that it may aid recovery from central nervous system injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan. fumiyo@health.nop.kagoshima-u.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Aim: Exercise can be used to enhance neuroplasticity and facilitate motor recovery after a stroke in rats. We investigated whether treadmill running could reduce brain damage and enhance the expression of midkine (MK) and nerve growth factor (NGF), increase angiogenesis and decrease the expression of caspase-3.

Methods: Seventy-seven Wistar rats were split into three experimental groups (ischaemia-control: 36, ischaemia-exercise: 36, sham-exercise: 5). Stroke was induced by 90-min left middle cerebral artery occlusion using an intraluminal filament. Beginning on the following day, the rats were made to run on a treadmill for 20 min once a day for a maximum of 28 consecutive days. Functional recovery after ischaemia was assessed using the beamwalking test and a neurological evaluation scale in all rats. Infarct volume, and the expression of MK, NGF, anti-platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), and caspase-3 were evaluated at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the induction of ischaemia.

Results: Over time motor coordination and neurological deficits improved more in the exercised group than in the non-exercised group. The infarct volume in the exercised group (12.4 ± 0.8%) subjected to treadmill running for 28 days was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (19.8 ± 4.2%, P < 0.01). The cellular expression levels of MK, NGF and PECAM-1 were significantly increased while that of caspase-3 was decreased in the peri-infarct area of the exercised rats.

Conclusions: Our findings show that treadmill exercise improves motor behaviour and reduces neurological deficits and infarct volume, suggesting that it may aid recovery from central nervous system injury.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus