Limits...
The effects of early exercise on brain damage and recovery after focal cerebral infarction in rats.

Matsuda F, Sakakima H, Yoshida Y - Acta Physiol (Oxf) (2011)

Bottom Line: We investigated whether treadmill running could reduce brain damage and enhance the expression of midkine (MK) and nerve growth factor (NGF), increase angiogenesis and decrease the expression of caspase-3.The infarct volume in the exercised group (12.4 ± 0.8%) subjected to treadmill running for 28 days was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (19.8 ± 4.2%, P < 0.01).Our findings show that treadmill exercise improves motor behaviour and reduces neurological deficits and infarct volume, suggesting that it may aid recovery from central nervous system injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan. fumiyo@health.nop.kagoshima-u.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Aim: Exercise can be used to enhance neuroplasticity and facilitate motor recovery after a stroke in rats. We investigated whether treadmill running could reduce brain damage and enhance the expression of midkine (MK) and nerve growth factor (NGF), increase angiogenesis and decrease the expression of caspase-3.

Methods: Seventy-seven Wistar rats were split into three experimental groups (ischaemia-control: 36, ischaemia-exercise: 36, sham-exercise: 5). Stroke was induced by 90-min left middle cerebral artery occlusion using an intraluminal filament. Beginning on the following day, the rats were made to run on a treadmill for 20 min once a day for a maximum of 28 consecutive days. Functional recovery after ischaemia was assessed using the beamwalking test and a neurological evaluation scale in all rats. Infarct volume, and the expression of MK, NGF, anti-platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), and caspase-3 were evaluated at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the induction of ischaemia.

Results: Over time motor coordination and neurological deficits improved more in the exercised group than in the non-exercised group. The infarct volume in the exercised group (12.4 ± 0.8%) subjected to treadmill running for 28 days was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (19.8 ± 4.2%, P < 0.01). The cellular expression levels of MK, NGF and PECAM-1 were significantly increased while that of caspase-3 was decreased in the peri-infarct area of the exercised rats.

Conclusions: Our findings show that treadmill exercise improves motor behaviour and reduces neurological deficits and infarct volume, suggesting that it may aid recovery from central nervous system injury.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Scheme of the frontal section of the rat brain. The white-area indicates the infarcted area. The square area indicates the area examined for MK-, NGF- and PECAM-1-positive areas and caspase-3-positive cells.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045711&req=5

fig01: Scheme of the frontal section of the rat brain. The white-area indicates the infarcted area. The square area indicates the area examined for MK-, NGF- and PECAM-1-positive areas and caspase-3-positive cells.

Mentions: The areas of immunoreactive cells in representative sections were measured in the motor cortex on the ischaemic side (Fig. 1). The same procedure was performed in the SE group. The areas of MK, NGF, PECAM-1 and caspase-3-positive cells were assessed quantitatively in three coronal sections (the sections began at intervals of 200 μm starting from the point 2 mm posterior to bregma) (2 mm × 2 mm in each field) within the frontoparietal cortex around the lesion. The areas of MK-, PECAM-1- and caspase-3-labelled cells were determined with a computer-assisted image analyzer using Scion Image software beta 4.0.3 (Scion Corp.). The number of NGF-immunoreactive cells was counted with a computer-assisted image analyzer using Adobe® Photoshop® 5.0 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA, USA). All histological analyses were performed in a blind fashion.


The effects of early exercise on brain damage and recovery after focal cerebral infarction in rats.

Matsuda F, Sakakima H, Yoshida Y - Acta Physiol (Oxf) (2011)

Scheme of the frontal section of the rat brain. The white-area indicates the infarcted area. The square area indicates the area examined for MK-, NGF- and PECAM-1-positive areas and caspase-3-positive cells.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045711&req=5

fig01: Scheme of the frontal section of the rat brain. The white-area indicates the infarcted area. The square area indicates the area examined for MK-, NGF- and PECAM-1-positive areas and caspase-3-positive cells.
Mentions: The areas of immunoreactive cells in representative sections were measured in the motor cortex on the ischaemic side (Fig. 1). The same procedure was performed in the SE group. The areas of MK, NGF, PECAM-1 and caspase-3-positive cells were assessed quantitatively in three coronal sections (the sections began at intervals of 200 μm starting from the point 2 mm posterior to bregma) (2 mm × 2 mm in each field) within the frontoparietal cortex around the lesion. The areas of MK-, PECAM-1- and caspase-3-labelled cells were determined with a computer-assisted image analyzer using Scion Image software beta 4.0.3 (Scion Corp.). The number of NGF-immunoreactive cells was counted with a computer-assisted image analyzer using Adobe® Photoshop® 5.0 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA, USA). All histological analyses were performed in a blind fashion.

Bottom Line: We investigated whether treadmill running could reduce brain damage and enhance the expression of midkine (MK) and nerve growth factor (NGF), increase angiogenesis and decrease the expression of caspase-3.The infarct volume in the exercised group (12.4 ± 0.8%) subjected to treadmill running for 28 days was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (19.8 ± 4.2%, P < 0.01).Our findings show that treadmill exercise improves motor behaviour and reduces neurological deficits and infarct volume, suggesting that it may aid recovery from central nervous system injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan. fumiyo@health.nop.kagoshima-u.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Aim: Exercise can be used to enhance neuroplasticity and facilitate motor recovery after a stroke in rats. We investigated whether treadmill running could reduce brain damage and enhance the expression of midkine (MK) and nerve growth factor (NGF), increase angiogenesis and decrease the expression of caspase-3.

Methods: Seventy-seven Wistar rats were split into three experimental groups (ischaemia-control: 36, ischaemia-exercise: 36, sham-exercise: 5). Stroke was induced by 90-min left middle cerebral artery occlusion using an intraluminal filament. Beginning on the following day, the rats were made to run on a treadmill for 20 min once a day for a maximum of 28 consecutive days. Functional recovery after ischaemia was assessed using the beamwalking test and a neurological evaluation scale in all rats. Infarct volume, and the expression of MK, NGF, anti-platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), and caspase-3 were evaluated at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the induction of ischaemia.

Results: Over time motor coordination and neurological deficits improved more in the exercised group than in the non-exercised group. The infarct volume in the exercised group (12.4 ± 0.8%) subjected to treadmill running for 28 days was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group (19.8 ± 4.2%, P < 0.01). The cellular expression levels of MK, NGF and PECAM-1 were significantly increased while that of caspase-3 was decreased in the peri-infarct area of the exercised rats.

Conclusions: Our findings show that treadmill exercise improves motor behaviour and reduces neurological deficits and infarct volume, suggesting that it may aid recovery from central nervous system injury.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus