Expression of pleiotrophin in the prostate is androgen regulated and it functions as an autocrine regulator of mesenchyme and cancer associated fibroblasts and as a paracrine regulator of epithelia.
Bottom Line: Ptn transcripts and protein were localized by in situ and immunohistochemistry and Ptn mRNA was quantitated by Northern blot and qRT-PCR.PTN also showed male enriched expression in fetal human male urethra versus female, and between wt male and ARKO male mice.Ptn protein was increased by testosterone in organ cultures of female rat VMP and in rat male urethra compared to female.
Affiliation: MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK.Show MeSH
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Mentions: The role of Ptn in prostate growth and morphogenesis was investigated using cultures of VP organs grown in vitro and treated with testosterone and recombinant hPTN protein (Fig. 3A). Addition of testosterone led to an increase in organ size and branching; however, addition of hPTN had relatively modest effects either in the presence or absence of testosterone (n = 5 experiments, 45 organs). The two dimensional area of VP organs grown ±T, ±3 µg/ml hPTN was measured using NIH imaging software (Fig. 3B, and Supplementary Table A). Addition of hPTN to VP organs had no statistically significant effect upon organ area, in the presence (P = 0.11) or absence (P = 0.4) of testosterone. hPTN (Peprotech) was added to organ cultures at physiological levels (∼0.94 µg/ml tissue volume) as used previously, to determine a functional response in vitro 39. To investigate a role for hPTN in branching morphogenesis, the number of epithelial bud tips around the periphery of VPs cultured ±T and ±hPTN were counted. The number of tips was expressed as a ratio to organ perimeter (tips per 1,000 pixels perimeter) to control for changes in organ size (Fig. 3C, and values are listed in Supplementary Table B). Treatment of VPs with hPTN caused an increase in the number of tips/1,000 pixels perimeter in the presence (P < 0.01) or absence (P < 0.001) of testosterone, and we suggest that Ptn has a role in increasing branching morphogenesis in the prostate.
Affiliation: MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK.