Expression of pleiotrophin in the prostate is androgen regulated and it functions as an autocrine regulator of mesenchyme and cancer associated fibroblasts and as a paracrine regulator of epithelia.
Bottom Line: Ptn transcripts and protein were localized by in situ and immunohistochemistry and Ptn mRNA was quantitated by Northern blot and qRT-PCR.PTN also showed male enriched expression in fetal human male urethra versus female, and between wt male and ARKO male mice.Ptn protein was increased by testosterone in organ cultures of female rat VMP and in rat male urethra compared to female.
Affiliation: MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Ptn was identified in the rat female VMP by LongSAGE transcriptional profiling with a ratio of 74:63 tags between the VMP/VSU 2. The VSU consists of VMP, smooth muscle and urethra and transcripts enriched or specific to the VMP are diluted in the VSU relative to pure VMP. Using Northern blot and qRT-PCR, Ptn transcript levels were ∼2.6-fold (Northern) (P < 0.05) and 1.5-fold (qRT-PCR, data not shown) higher in the VMP than VSU. The temporal expression of Ptn mRNA in the prostate was studied by qRT-PCR (Fig. 1B). Ptn was most abundant during the neonatal (P0) and perinatal period (P4, P10) and expression subsequently decreased until adulthood. There was also evidence of higher Ptn levels in males versus females at e17.5 (P < 0.001). To examine the spatial distribution of Ptn in the male and female UGT, whole-mount in situ hybridization was used to localize Ptn transcripts. Ptn mRNA was observed in the female in VMP and urethral stroma (Fig. 1C), and in the male in the prostatic mesenchyme (all lobes) and the urethral stroma (Fig. 1D). Additionally, to determine whether Ptn mRNA distribution was affected by testosterone, Ptn mRNA was localized in male VPs grown in culture ±T (Fig. 1E,F). Organ growth was stimulated by testosterone, and Ptn was present in mesenchymal cells throughout the VP, and the distribution of Ptn was similar between organs grown with or without testosterone. There was no evidence of epithelial Ptn expression (insets, Fig. 1E,F) though our studies do not rule out low level epithelial expression or expression within epithelial subsets.
Affiliation: MRC Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK.