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The evolution and expression of the snaR family of small non-coding RNAs.

Parrott AM, Tsai M, Batchu P, Ryan K, Ozer HL, Tian B, Mathews MB - Nucleic Acids Res. (2010)

Bottom Line: We recently identified the snaR family of small non-coding RNAs that associate in vivo with the nuclear factor 90 (NF90/ILF3) protein.The major human species, snaR-A, is an RNA polymerase III transcript with restricted tissue distribution and orthologs in chimpanzee but not rhesus macaque or mouse.We infer that snaR evolved from the left monomer of the primate-specific Alu SINE family via ASR and CAS in conjunction with major primate speciation events, and suggest that snaRs participate in tissue- and species-specific regulation of cell growth and translation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, New Jersey Medical School, UMDNJ, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

ABSTRACT
We recently identified the snaR family of small non-coding RNAs that associate in vivo with the nuclear factor 90 (NF90/ILF3) protein. The major human species, snaR-A, is an RNA polymerase III transcript with restricted tissue distribution and orthologs in chimpanzee but not rhesus macaque or mouse. We report their expression in human tissues and their evolution in primates. snaR genes are exclusively in African Great Apes and some are unique to humans. Two novel families of snaR-related genetic elements were found in primates: CAS (catarrhine ancestor of snaR), limited to Old World Monkeys and apes; and ASR (Alu/snaR-related), present in all monkeys and apes. ASR and CAS appear to have spread by retrotransposition, whereas most snaR genes have spread by segmental duplication. snaR-A and snaR-G2 are differentially expressed in discrete regions of the human brain and other tissues, notably including testis. snaR-A is up-regulated in transformed and immortalized human cells, and is stably bound to ribosomes in HeLa cells. We infer that snaR evolved from the left monomer of the primate-specific Alu SINE family via ASR and CAS in conjunction with major primate speciation events, and suggest that snaRs participate in tissue- and species-specific regulation of cell growth and translation.

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snaR-A induction by cell transformation and immortalization. Derivation of pre-immortal and immortal SV40-transformed cell lines from HS74 and HSF43 normal diploid fibroblasts is shown schematically, as described in the text and Methods. Senescent HS74 cultures (HS74 sen) are also represented. Northern blots of total RNA were probed for snaR-A (top), BC200 (middle) and 5S rRNA (bottom). Human testis (Tes) and fetal brain RNA (Fbra) were included as controls. Intensities of snaR-A and BC200 bands were determined relative to parental cells by phosphorimager quantification and the ratio of snaR-A to BC200 was calculated.
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Figure 7: snaR-A induction by cell transformation and immortalization. Derivation of pre-immortal and immortal SV40-transformed cell lines from HS74 and HSF43 normal diploid fibroblasts is shown schematically, as described in the text and Methods. Senescent HS74 cultures (HS74 sen) are also represented. Northern blots of total RNA were probed for snaR-A (top), BC200 (middle) and 5S rRNA (bottom). Human testis (Tes) and fetal brain RNA (Fbra) were included as controls. Intensities of snaR-A and BC200 bands were determined relative to parental cells by phosphorimager quantification and the ratio of snaR-A to BC200 was calculated.

Mentions: In contrast to its restricted distribution in human tissues, snaR-A is present at moderate to high levels in nearly all permanent cell lines tested (8). To determine whether it is induced by cell transformation, we examined two series of cell lines derived from normal human diploid fibroblasts by transformation with SV40. HS74 fetal bone marrow stromal fibroblasts (20,23) and HSF43 human foreskin fibroblasts (22) gave rise to preimmortal and immortal cell lineages as diagrammed in Figure 7. Extracts of these cells were examined by northern blotting for snaR-A, with 5 S rRNA as control.Figure 7.


The evolution and expression of the snaR family of small non-coding RNAs.

Parrott AM, Tsai M, Batchu P, Ryan K, Ozer HL, Tian B, Mathews MB - Nucleic Acids Res. (2010)

snaR-A induction by cell transformation and immortalization. Derivation of pre-immortal and immortal SV40-transformed cell lines from HS74 and HSF43 normal diploid fibroblasts is shown schematically, as described in the text and Methods. Senescent HS74 cultures (HS74 sen) are also represented. Northern blots of total RNA were probed for snaR-A (top), BC200 (middle) and 5S rRNA (bottom). Human testis (Tes) and fetal brain RNA (Fbra) were included as controls. Intensities of snaR-A and BC200 bands were determined relative to parental cells by phosphorimager quantification and the ratio of snaR-A to BC200 was calculated.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045588&req=5

Figure 7: snaR-A induction by cell transformation and immortalization. Derivation of pre-immortal and immortal SV40-transformed cell lines from HS74 and HSF43 normal diploid fibroblasts is shown schematically, as described in the text and Methods. Senescent HS74 cultures (HS74 sen) are also represented. Northern blots of total RNA were probed for snaR-A (top), BC200 (middle) and 5S rRNA (bottom). Human testis (Tes) and fetal brain RNA (Fbra) were included as controls. Intensities of snaR-A and BC200 bands were determined relative to parental cells by phosphorimager quantification and the ratio of snaR-A to BC200 was calculated.
Mentions: In contrast to its restricted distribution in human tissues, snaR-A is present at moderate to high levels in nearly all permanent cell lines tested (8). To determine whether it is induced by cell transformation, we examined two series of cell lines derived from normal human diploid fibroblasts by transformation with SV40. HS74 fetal bone marrow stromal fibroblasts (20,23) and HSF43 human foreskin fibroblasts (22) gave rise to preimmortal and immortal cell lineages as diagrammed in Figure 7. Extracts of these cells were examined by northern blotting for snaR-A, with 5 S rRNA as control.Figure 7.

Bottom Line: We recently identified the snaR family of small non-coding RNAs that associate in vivo with the nuclear factor 90 (NF90/ILF3) protein.The major human species, snaR-A, is an RNA polymerase III transcript with restricted tissue distribution and orthologs in chimpanzee but not rhesus macaque or mouse.We infer that snaR evolved from the left monomer of the primate-specific Alu SINE family via ASR and CAS in conjunction with major primate speciation events, and suggest that snaRs participate in tissue- and species-specific regulation of cell growth and translation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, New Jersey Medical School, UMDNJ, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

ABSTRACT
We recently identified the snaR family of small non-coding RNAs that associate in vivo with the nuclear factor 90 (NF90/ILF3) protein. The major human species, snaR-A, is an RNA polymerase III transcript with restricted tissue distribution and orthologs in chimpanzee but not rhesus macaque or mouse. We report their expression in human tissues and their evolution in primates. snaR genes are exclusively in African Great Apes and some are unique to humans. Two novel families of snaR-related genetic elements were found in primates: CAS (catarrhine ancestor of snaR), limited to Old World Monkeys and apes; and ASR (Alu/snaR-related), present in all monkeys and apes. ASR and CAS appear to have spread by retrotransposition, whereas most snaR genes have spread by segmental duplication. snaR-A and snaR-G2 are differentially expressed in discrete regions of the human brain and other tissues, notably including testis. snaR-A is up-regulated in transformed and immortalized human cells, and is stably bound to ribosomes in HeLa cells. We infer that snaR evolved from the left monomer of the primate-specific Alu SINE family via ASR and CAS in conjunction with major primate speciation events, and suggest that snaRs participate in tissue- and species-specific regulation of cell growth and translation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus