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The evolution and expression of the snaR family of small non-coding RNAs.

Parrott AM, Tsai M, Batchu P, Ryan K, Ozer HL, Tian B, Mathews MB - Nucleic Acids Res. (2010)

Bottom Line: We recently identified the snaR family of small non-coding RNAs that associate in vivo with the nuclear factor 90 (NF90/ILF3) protein.The major human species, snaR-A, is an RNA polymerase III transcript with restricted tissue distribution and orthologs in chimpanzee but not rhesus macaque or mouse.We infer that snaR evolved from the left monomer of the primate-specific Alu SINE family via ASR and CAS in conjunction with major primate speciation events, and suggest that snaRs participate in tissue- and species-specific regulation of cell growth and translation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, New Jersey Medical School, UMDNJ, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

ABSTRACT
We recently identified the snaR family of small non-coding RNAs that associate in vivo with the nuclear factor 90 (NF90/ILF3) protein. The major human species, snaR-A, is an RNA polymerase III transcript with restricted tissue distribution and orthologs in chimpanzee but not rhesus macaque or mouse. We report their expression in human tissues and their evolution in primates. snaR genes are exclusively in African Great Apes and some are unique to humans. Two novel families of snaR-related genetic elements were found in primates: CAS (catarrhine ancestor of snaR), limited to Old World Monkeys and apes; and ASR (Alu/snaR-related), present in all monkeys and apes. ASR and CAS appear to have spread by retrotransposition, whereas most snaR genes have spread by segmental duplication. snaR-A and snaR-G2 are differentially expressed in discrete regions of the human brain and other tissues, notably including testis. snaR-A is up-regulated in transformed and immortalized human cells, and is stably bound to ribosomes in HeLa cells. We infer that snaR evolved from the left monomer of the primate-specific Alu SINE family via ASR and CAS in conjunction with major primate speciation events, and suggest that snaRs participate in tissue- and species-specific regulation of cell growth and translation.

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Differential expression of snaRs in brain and other tissues. Relative expression of snaR-A (A), snaR-C (D) and snaR-G2 (E) in human tissues and of snaR-A (B) and snaR-G2 (F) in regions of the human brain as determined by qPCR analysis. Histograms are averages of 3–4 separate experiments each performed in duplicate and normalized to placental sample. Standard deviations are shown. Two antipodal slices (A and B) were made for each brain tissue, ‘placenta A and B’ represent two different purchased lots. (C) Northern blots of total RNA extracted from 293 cells and testis, probed for snaR-B and -C. End-labeled 293 cell total RNA served as marker (M).
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Figure 5: Differential expression of snaRs in brain and other tissues. Relative expression of snaR-A (A), snaR-C (D) and snaR-G2 (E) in human tissues and of snaR-A (B) and snaR-G2 (F) in regions of the human brain as determined by qPCR analysis. Histograms are averages of 3–4 separate experiments each performed in duplicate and normalized to placental sample. Standard deviations are shown. Two antipodal slices (A and B) were made for each brain tissue, ‘placenta A and B’ represent two different purchased lots. (C) Northern blots of total RNA extracted from 293 cells and testis, probed for snaR-B and -C. End-labeled 293 cell total RNA served as marker (M).

Mentions: Consistent with earlier observations (8), snaR-A was most abundant in testis where its expression was ∼100-fold higher than in term placenta, lung and adipose tissue (Figure 5A). Lower expression was detected in several other tissues, and in total brain extract. snaR-A levels varied greatly in brain regions (Figure 5B). Most remarkably, snaR-A was present at ∼10% of the testis level in three of four segments of pituitary gland (Figure 5B), possibly indicating differential expression in the gland’s anterior and posterior lobes. Substantial expression was observed in brain regions including the hypothalamus, globus pallidus and thalamus.Figure 5.


The evolution and expression of the snaR family of small non-coding RNAs.

Parrott AM, Tsai M, Batchu P, Ryan K, Ozer HL, Tian B, Mathews MB - Nucleic Acids Res. (2010)

Differential expression of snaRs in brain and other tissues. Relative expression of snaR-A (A), snaR-C (D) and snaR-G2 (E) in human tissues and of snaR-A (B) and snaR-G2 (F) in regions of the human brain as determined by qPCR analysis. Histograms are averages of 3–4 separate experiments each performed in duplicate and normalized to placental sample. Standard deviations are shown. Two antipodal slices (A and B) were made for each brain tissue, ‘placenta A and B’ represent two different purchased lots. (C) Northern blots of total RNA extracted from 293 cells and testis, probed for snaR-B and -C. End-labeled 293 cell total RNA served as marker (M).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045588&req=5

Figure 5: Differential expression of snaRs in brain and other tissues. Relative expression of snaR-A (A), snaR-C (D) and snaR-G2 (E) in human tissues and of snaR-A (B) and snaR-G2 (F) in regions of the human brain as determined by qPCR analysis. Histograms are averages of 3–4 separate experiments each performed in duplicate and normalized to placental sample. Standard deviations are shown. Two antipodal slices (A and B) were made for each brain tissue, ‘placenta A and B’ represent two different purchased lots. (C) Northern blots of total RNA extracted from 293 cells and testis, probed for snaR-B and -C. End-labeled 293 cell total RNA served as marker (M).
Mentions: Consistent with earlier observations (8), snaR-A was most abundant in testis where its expression was ∼100-fold higher than in term placenta, lung and adipose tissue (Figure 5A). Lower expression was detected in several other tissues, and in total brain extract. snaR-A levels varied greatly in brain regions (Figure 5B). Most remarkably, snaR-A was present at ∼10% of the testis level in three of four segments of pituitary gland (Figure 5B), possibly indicating differential expression in the gland’s anterior and posterior lobes. Substantial expression was observed in brain regions including the hypothalamus, globus pallidus and thalamus.Figure 5.

Bottom Line: We recently identified the snaR family of small non-coding RNAs that associate in vivo with the nuclear factor 90 (NF90/ILF3) protein.The major human species, snaR-A, is an RNA polymerase III transcript with restricted tissue distribution and orthologs in chimpanzee but not rhesus macaque or mouse.We infer that snaR evolved from the left monomer of the primate-specific Alu SINE family via ASR and CAS in conjunction with major primate speciation events, and suggest that snaRs participate in tissue- and species-specific regulation of cell growth and translation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, New Jersey Medical School, UMDNJ, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

ABSTRACT
We recently identified the snaR family of small non-coding RNAs that associate in vivo with the nuclear factor 90 (NF90/ILF3) protein. The major human species, snaR-A, is an RNA polymerase III transcript with restricted tissue distribution and orthologs in chimpanzee but not rhesus macaque or mouse. We report their expression in human tissues and their evolution in primates. snaR genes are exclusively in African Great Apes and some are unique to humans. Two novel families of snaR-related genetic elements were found in primates: CAS (catarrhine ancestor of snaR), limited to Old World Monkeys and apes; and ASR (Alu/snaR-related), present in all monkeys and apes. ASR and CAS appear to have spread by retrotransposition, whereas most snaR genes have spread by segmental duplication. snaR-A and snaR-G2 are differentially expressed in discrete regions of the human brain and other tissues, notably including testis. snaR-A is up-regulated in transformed and immortalized human cells, and is stably bound to ribosomes in HeLa cells. We infer that snaR evolved from the left monomer of the primate-specific Alu SINE family via ASR and CAS in conjunction with major primate speciation events, and suggest that snaRs participate in tissue- and species-specific regulation of cell growth and translation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus