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Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in selected public places (PM2.5 and air nicotine) and non-smoking employees (hair nicotine) in Ghana.

Agbenyikey W, Wellington E, Gyapong J, Travers MJ, Breysse PN, McCarty KM, Navas-Acien A - Tob Control (2010)

Bottom Line: Hair nicotine concentrations were also higher in non-smoking employees working in smoking venues (median 2.49 [0.46-6.84] ng/mg) compared to those working in non-smoking venues (median 0.16 [0.08-0.79]ng/mg).This is one of the first studies to ascertain SHS and hair nicotine in Africa.Levels were comparable to those measured in American, Asian and European countries without or before smoking bans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure is a global public health problem. Ghana currently has no legislation to prevent smoking in public places. To provide data on SHS levels in hospitality venues in Ghana the authors measured (1) airborne particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) and nicotine concentrations and (2) hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees. Quantifying SHS exposure will provide evidence needed to develop tobacco control legislation.

Method: PM(2.5) was measured for 30 min in 75 smoking and 13 non-smoking venues. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 8 smoking and 2 non-smoking venues. Additionally, 63 non-smoking employees provided hair samples for nicotine analysis.

Result: Compared to non-smoking venues, smoking venues had markedly elevated PM(2.5) (median 553 [IQR 259-1038] vs 16.0 [14.0-17.0]μg/m(3)) and air nicotine (1.83 [0.91-4.25] vs 0.03 [0.02-0.04]μg/m(3)) concentrations. Hair nicotine concentrations were also higher in non-smoking employees working in smoking venues (median 2.49 [0.46-6.84] ng/mg) compared to those working in non-smoking venues (median 0.16 [0.08-0.79]ng/mg). Hair nicotine concentrations correlated with self-reported hours of SHS exposure (r=0.35), indoor air PM(2.5) concentrations (r=0.47) and air nicotine concentrations (r=0.63).

Conclusion: SHS levels were unacceptably high in public places in Ghana where smoking is allowed, despite a relatively low-smoking prevalence in the country. This is one of the first studies to ascertain SHS and hair nicotine in Africa. Levels were comparable to those measured in American, Asian and European countries without or before smoking bans. Implementing a comprehensive smoke-free legislation that protects workers and customers from exposure to secondhand smoke is urgently needed in Ghana.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Scatter plots of the relationship of hair nicotine concentrations (ng/mg) with different measures of secondhand smoke exposure in the workplace (hours of exposure per week, air PM2.5 concentrations and air nicotine concentrations). Dots correspond to hair nicotine concentrations for each non-smoking employee by employee self-reported hours of exposure (top panel), log-transformed PM2.5 concentrations (left bottom panel) and log-transformed air nicotine concentrations (right bottom panel) in each venue. The line estimates the corresponding log-linear dose–response relationships.
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fig2: Scatter plots of the relationship of hair nicotine concentrations (ng/mg) with different measures of secondhand smoke exposure in the workplace (hours of exposure per week, air PM2.5 concentrations and air nicotine concentrations). Dots correspond to hair nicotine concentrations for each non-smoking employee by employee self-reported hours of exposure (top panel), log-transformed PM2.5 concentrations (left bottom panel) and log-transformed air nicotine concentrations (right bottom panel) in each venue. The line estimates the corresponding log-linear dose–response relationships.

Mentions: Hair nicotine concentrations were markedly increased in non-smoking employees working in smoking venues (median 2.49, IQR 0.46–6.84, range 0.07–48.4 ng/mg) compared to non-smoking employees working in smoke-free venues (0.16, 0.08–0.79, undetectable-0.79 ng/mg). Hair nicotine concentrations were positively correlated with self-reported hours of SHS exposure (r=0.35), PM2.5 concentrations (r=0.47) and air nicotine concentrations (r=0.63) (figure 2). The results were similar after excluding participants who lived with a smoker.


Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in selected public places (PM2.5 and air nicotine) and non-smoking employees (hair nicotine) in Ghana.

Agbenyikey W, Wellington E, Gyapong J, Travers MJ, Breysse PN, McCarty KM, Navas-Acien A - Tob Control (2010)

Scatter plots of the relationship of hair nicotine concentrations (ng/mg) with different measures of secondhand smoke exposure in the workplace (hours of exposure per week, air PM2.5 concentrations and air nicotine concentrations). Dots correspond to hair nicotine concentrations for each non-smoking employee by employee self-reported hours of exposure (top panel), log-transformed PM2.5 concentrations (left bottom panel) and log-transformed air nicotine concentrations (right bottom panel) in each venue. The line estimates the corresponding log-linear dose–response relationships.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045526&req=5

fig2: Scatter plots of the relationship of hair nicotine concentrations (ng/mg) with different measures of secondhand smoke exposure in the workplace (hours of exposure per week, air PM2.5 concentrations and air nicotine concentrations). Dots correspond to hair nicotine concentrations for each non-smoking employee by employee self-reported hours of exposure (top panel), log-transformed PM2.5 concentrations (left bottom panel) and log-transformed air nicotine concentrations (right bottom panel) in each venue. The line estimates the corresponding log-linear dose–response relationships.
Mentions: Hair nicotine concentrations were markedly increased in non-smoking employees working in smoking venues (median 2.49, IQR 0.46–6.84, range 0.07–48.4 ng/mg) compared to non-smoking employees working in smoke-free venues (0.16, 0.08–0.79, undetectable-0.79 ng/mg). Hair nicotine concentrations were positively correlated with self-reported hours of SHS exposure (r=0.35), PM2.5 concentrations (r=0.47) and air nicotine concentrations (r=0.63) (figure 2). The results were similar after excluding participants who lived with a smoker.

Bottom Line: Hair nicotine concentrations were also higher in non-smoking employees working in smoking venues (median 2.49 [0.46-6.84] ng/mg) compared to those working in non-smoking venues (median 0.16 [0.08-0.79]ng/mg).This is one of the first studies to ascertain SHS and hair nicotine in Africa.Levels were comparable to those measured in American, Asian and European countries without or before smoking bans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure is a global public health problem. Ghana currently has no legislation to prevent smoking in public places. To provide data on SHS levels in hospitality venues in Ghana the authors measured (1) airborne particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) and nicotine concentrations and (2) hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees. Quantifying SHS exposure will provide evidence needed to develop tobacco control legislation.

Method: PM(2.5) was measured for 30 min in 75 smoking and 13 non-smoking venues. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 8 smoking and 2 non-smoking venues. Additionally, 63 non-smoking employees provided hair samples for nicotine analysis.

Result: Compared to non-smoking venues, smoking venues had markedly elevated PM(2.5) (median 553 [IQR 259-1038] vs 16.0 [14.0-17.0]μg/m(3)) and air nicotine (1.83 [0.91-4.25] vs 0.03 [0.02-0.04]μg/m(3)) concentrations. Hair nicotine concentrations were also higher in non-smoking employees working in smoking venues (median 2.49 [0.46-6.84] ng/mg) compared to those working in non-smoking venues (median 0.16 [0.08-0.79]ng/mg). Hair nicotine concentrations correlated with self-reported hours of SHS exposure (r=0.35), indoor air PM(2.5) concentrations (r=0.47) and air nicotine concentrations (r=0.63).

Conclusion: SHS levels were unacceptably high in public places in Ghana where smoking is allowed, despite a relatively low-smoking prevalence in the country. This is one of the first studies to ascertain SHS and hair nicotine in Africa. Levels were comparable to those measured in American, Asian and European countries without or before smoking bans. Implementing a comprehensive smoke-free legislation that protects workers and customers from exposure to secondhand smoke is urgently needed in Ghana.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus