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The developmental impact of prenatal stress, prenatal dexamethasone and postnatal social stress on physiology, behaviour and neuroanatomy of primate offspring: studies in rhesus macaque and common marmoset.

Pryce CR, Aubert Y, Maier C, Pearce PC, Fuchs E - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2010)

Bottom Line: Prenatal DEX was without effect on HPA activity and reduced social play and skilled motor behaviour in marmoset.Perinatal stress-related environmental events exert short- and long-term effects on HPA function, behaviour and brain status in rhesus macaque and common marmoset.The mechanisms mediating the enduring effects remain to be elucidated, with candidates including increased basal HPA function and epigenetic programming.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Behavioural Neurobiology Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Schwerzenbach, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Exposure of the immature mammalian brain to stress factors, including stress levels of glucocorticoids, either prenatally or postnatally, is regarded as a major regulatory factor in short- and long-term brain function and, in human, as a major aetiological factor in neuropsychiatric disorders. Experimental human studies are not feasible and animal studies are required to demonstrate causality and elucidate mechanisms. A number of studies have been conducted and reviewed in rodents but there are relatively few studies in primates.

Objectives: Here we present an overview of our published studies and some original data on the effects of: (1) prenatal stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) re/activity and hippocampus neuroanatomy in juvenile-adolescent rhesus macaques; (2) prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) on HPA activity, behaviour and prefrontal cortex neuroanatomy in infant-adolescent common marmosets; (3) postnatal daily parental separation stress on HPA re/activity, behaviour, sleep and hippocampus and prefrontal cortex neuroanatomy in infant-adolescent common marmoset.

Results: Prenatal stress increased basal cortisol levels and reduced neurogenesis in macaque. Prenatal DEX was without effect on HPA activity and reduced social play and skilled motor behaviour in marmoset. Postnatal social stress increased basal cortisol levels, reduced social play, increased awakening and reduced hippocampal glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor expression in marmoset.

Conclusions: Perinatal stress-related environmental events exert short- and long-term effects on HPA function, behaviour and brain status in rhesus macaque and common marmoset. The mechanisms mediating the enduring effects remain to be elucidated, with candidates including increased basal HPA function and epigenetic programming.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Cortisol titres in ED common marmosets (N = 9) in urine samples obtained immediately after removal of the infant from the carrying parent (Pre-ED) and immediately after an ED session. Titres were significantly greater in post-versus pre-ED urine samples. Values are mean ± SEM, with cortisol expressed relative to creatinine titres
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Fig6: Cortisol titres in ED common marmosets (N = 9) in urine samples obtained immediately after removal of the infant from the carrying parent (Pre-ED) and immediately after an ED session. Titres were significantly greater in post-versus pre-ED urine samples. Values are mean ± SEM, with cortisol expressed relative to creatinine titres

Mentions: For daily urinary cortisol responses of ED infants to ED (Fig. 6), there was a significant main effect of Condition (F(1, 7) = 26.15, p = 0.001), with post-ED cortisol titres being elevated compared with pre-ED titres. There was a significant interaction of age × time of day (F(1, 7) = 5.64, p = 0.05): while there was almost no circadian change in cortisol titres in weeks 1 + 2, PM cortisol titres were lower than AM cortisol titres in weeks 3 + 4. Basal plasma titres of cortisol were analysed using between subject factors of manipulation, parentage and sex, and repeated measure factors of age (weeks 28, 40, 50) and time of day (am, pm). There was no significant effect involving manipulation (ED: 39 ± 5 μg/dL; CON: 41 ± 5 μg/dL, mean ± SEM). There was a significant main effect of Time of day (F(1, 7) = 605.32, p < 0.001: AM: 71 ± 3 μg/dL; PM: 9 ± 1 μg/dL).Fig. 6


The developmental impact of prenatal stress, prenatal dexamethasone and postnatal social stress on physiology, behaviour and neuroanatomy of primate offspring: studies in rhesus macaque and common marmoset.

Pryce CR, Aubert Y, Maier C, Pearce PC, Fuchs E - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2010)

Cortisol titres in ED common marmosets (N = 9) in urine samples obtained immediately after removal of the infant from the carrying parent (Pre-ED) and immediately after an ED session. Titres were significantly greater in post-versus pre-ED urine samples. Values are mean ± SEM, with cortisol expressed relative to creatinine titres
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045510&req=5

Fig6: Cortisol titres in ED common marmosets (N = 9) in urine samples obtained immediately after removal of the infant from the carrying parent (Pre-ED) and immediately after an ED session. Titres were significantly greater in post-versus pre-ED urine samples. Values are mean ± SEM, with cortisol expressed relative to creatinine titres
Mentions: For daily urinary cortisol responses of ED infants to ED (Fig. 6), there was a significant main effect of Condition (F(1, 7) = 26.15, p = 0.001), with post-ED cortisol titres being elevated compared with pre-ED titres. There was a significant interaction of age × time of day (F(1, 7) = 5.64, p = 0.05): while there was almost no circadian change in cortisol titres in weeks 1 + 2, PM cortisol titres were lower than AM cortisol titres in weeks 3 + 4. Basal plasma titres of cortisol were analysed using between subject factors of manipulation, parentage and sex, and repeated measure factors of age (weeks 28, 40, 50) and time of day (am, pm). There was no significant effect involving manipulation (ED: 39 ± 5 μg/dL; CON: 41 ± 5 μg/dL, mean ± SEM). There was a significant main effect of Time of day (F(1, 7) = 605.32, p < 0.001: AM: 71 ± 3 μg/dL; PM: 9 ± 1 μg/dL).Fig. 6

Bottom Line: Prenatal DEX was without effect on HPA activity and reduced social play and skilled motor behaviour in marmoset.Perinatal stress-related environmental events exert short- and long-term effects on HPA function, behaviour and brain status in rhesus macaque and common marmoset.The mechanisms mediating the enduring effects remain to be elucidated, with candidates including increased basal HPA function and epigenetic programming.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Behavioural Neurobiology Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Schwerzenbach, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Exposure of the immature mammalian brain to stress factors, including stress levels of glucocorticoids, either prenatally or postnatally, is regarded as a major regulatory factor in short- and long-term brain function and, in human, as a major aetiological factor in neuropsychiatric disorders. Experimental human studies are not feasible and animal studies are required to demonstrate causality and elucidate mechanisms. A number of studies have been conducted and reviewed in rodents but there are relatively few studies in primates.

Objectives: Here we present an overview of our published studies and some original data on the effects of: (1) prenatal stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) re/activity and hippocampus neuroanatomy in juvenile-adolescent rhesus macaques; (2) prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) on HPA activity, behaviour and prefrontal cortex neuroanatomy in infant-adolescent common marmosets; (3) postnatal daily parental separation stress on HPA re/activity, behaviour, sleep and hippocampus and prefrontal cortex neuroanatomy in infant-adolescent common marmoset.

Results: Prenatal stress increased basal cortisol levels and reduced neurogenesis in macaque. Prenatal DEX was without effect on HPA activity and reduced social play and skilled motor behaviour in marmoset. Postnatal social stress increased basal cortisol levels, reduced social play, increased awakening and reduced hippocampal glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor expression in marmoset.

Conclusions: Perinatal stress-related environmental events exert short- and long-term effects on HPA function, behaviour and brain status in rhesus macaque and common marmoset. The mechanisms mediating the enduring effects remain to be elucidated, with candidates including increased basal HPA function and epigenetic programming.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus