Limits...
The developmental impact of prenatal stress, prenatal dexamethasone and postnatal social stress on physiology, behaviour and neuroanatomy of primate offspring: studies in rhesus macaque and common marmoset.

Pryce CR, Aubert Y, Maier C, Pearce PC, Fuchs E - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2010)

Bottom Line: Prenatal DEX was without effect on HPA activity and reduced social play and skilled motor behaviour in marmoset.Perinatal stress-related environmental events exert short- and long-term effects on HPA function, behaviour and brain status in rhesus macaque and common marmoset.The mechanisms mediating the enduring effects remain to be elucidated, with candidates including increased basal HPA function and epigenetic programming.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Behavioural Neurobiology Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Schwerzenbach, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Exposure of the immature mammalian brain to stress factors, including stress levels of glucocorticoids, either prenatally or postnatally, is regarded as a major regulatory factor in short- and long-term brain function and, in human, as a major aetiological factor in neuropsychiatric disorders. Experimental human studies are not feasible and animal studies are required to demonstrate causality and elucidate mechanisms. A number of studies have been conducted and reviewed in rodents but there are relatively few studies in primates.

Objectives: Here we present an overview of our published studies and some original data on the effects of: (1) prenatal stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) re/activity and hippocampus neuroanatomy in juvenile-adolescent rhesus macaques; (2) prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) on HPA activity, behaviour and prefrontal cortex neuroanatomy in infant-adolescent common marmosets; (3) postnatal daily parental separation stress on HPA re/activity, behaviour, sleep and hippocampus and prefrontal cortex neuroanatomy in infant-adolescent common marmoset.

Results: Prenatal stress increased basal cortisol levels and reduced neurogenesis in macaque. Prenatal DEX was without effect on HPA activity and reduced social play and skilled motor behaviour in marmoset. Postnatal social stress increased basal cortisol levels, reduced social play, increased awakening and reduced hippocampal glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor expression in marmoset.

Conclusions: Perinatal stress-related environmental events exert short- and long-term effects on HPA function, behaviour and brain status in rhesus macaque and common marmoset. The mechanisms mediating the enduring effects remain to be elucidated, with candidates including increased basal HPA function and epigenetic programming.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic showing the major developmental life-history stages of the rhesus macaque (a) and the common marmoset (b). Please note that the scale for the rhesus macaque is given in years and the one for the common marmoset in weeks
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045510&req=5

Fig1: Schematic showing the major developmental life-history stages of the rhesus macaque (a) and the common marmoset (b). Please note that the scale for the rhesus macaque is given in years and the one for the common marmoset in weeks

Mentions: Rhesus monkey infants were generated from three types of pregnancies. Control animals from undisturbed, normal pregnancies were compared with subjects that had been disturbed for 6 weeks during the 24-week pregnancy, either early or late in gestation. The pregnant female was acutely disturbed 5 days per week, by being moved to a darkened test room. While located there for 10 min in a small transport cage, the animal was intermittently aroused with an acoustical startle protocol (three 1-s broadcasts of a 110 db horn, randomly at 1–4-min intervals). Earlier studies from the laboratory in Madison using the same paradigm demonstrated that it significantly elevates cortisol above the normal level for pregnant monkeys, and can affect the infant’s behavioural reactivity and immunity later in life. Specifically it has been shown that disturbance of the pregnant females using this method results in offspring with immature neuromotor reflexes at birth, greater emotionality as infants, and lymphocyte responses that were still abnormal at 2 years of age (Clarke and Schneider 1993; Coe et al. 2002; Schneider et al. 1999). In the present experiment the early stress period was days 50–92 post-conception, and the late stress period was days 105–147 post-conception, of the 165-day gestation period. Before and after these 6 week manipulations, the pregnant females lived undisturbed in their home cages until the natural birth of their infants (Fig. 1). After birth, the infants were reared normally by the mother and observations of the maternal behaviour did not indicate that the prenatally stressed infants were treated differently from control infants. At 7 months of age, the infants were transferred into small social groups.Fig. 1


The developmental impact of prenatal stress, prenatal dexamethasone and postnatal social stress on physiology, behaviour and neuroanatomy of primate offspring: studies in rhesus macaque and common marmoset.

Pryce CR, Aubert Y, Maier C, Pearce PC, Fuchs E - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2010)

Schematic showing the major developmental life-history stages of the rhesus macaque (a) and the common marmoset (b). Please note that the scale for the rhesus macaque is given in years and the one for the common marmoset in weeks
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045510&req=5

Fig1: Schematic showing the major developmental life-history stages of the rhesus macaque (a) and the common marmoset (b). Please note that the scale for the rhesus macaque is given in years and the one for the common marmoset in weeks
Mentions: Rhesus monkey infants were generated from three types of pregnancies. Control animals from undisturbed, normal pregnancies were compared with subjects that had been disturbed for 6 weeks during the 24-week pregnancy, either early or late in gestation. The pregnant female was acutely disturbed 5 days per week, by being moved to a darkened test room. While located there for 10 min in a small transport cage, the animal was intermittently aroused with an acoustical startle protocol (three 1-s broadcasts of a 110 db horn, randomly at 1–4-min intervals). Earlier studies from the laboratory in Madison using the same paradigm demonstrated that it significantly elevates cortisol above the normal level for pregnant monkeys, and can affect the infant’s behavioural reactivity and immunity later in life. Specifically it has been shown that disturbance of the pregnant females using this method results in offspring with immature neuromotor reflexes at birth, greater emotionality as infants, and lymphocyte responses that were still abnormal at 2 years of age (Clarke and Schneider 1993; Coe et al. 2002; Schneider et al. 1999). In the present experiment the early stress period was days 50–92 post-conception, and the late stress period was days 105–147 post-conception, of the 165-day gestation period. Before and after these 6 week manipulations, the pregnant females lived undisturbed in their home cages until the natural birth of their infants (Fig. 1). After birth, the infants were reared normally by the mother and observations of the maternal behaviour did not indicate that the prenatally stressed infants were treated differently from control infants. At 7 months of age, the infants were transferred into small social groups.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Prenatal DEX was without effect on HPA activity and reduced social play and skilled motor behaviour in marmoset.Perinatal stress-related environmental events exert short- and long-term effects on HPA function, behaviour and brain status in rhesus macaque and common marmoset.The mechanisms mediating the enduring effects remain to be elucidated, with candidates including increased basal HPA function and epigenetic programming.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Behavioural Neurobiology Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Schwerzenbach, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Exposure of the immature mammalian brain to stress factors, including stress levels of glucocorticoids, either prenatally or postnatally, is regarded as a major regulatory factor in short- and long-term brain function and, in human, as a major aetiological factor in neuropsychiatric disorders. Experimental human studies are not feasible and animal studies are required to demonstrate causality and elucidate mechanisms. A number of studies have been conducted and reviewed in rodents but there are relatively few studies in primates.

Objectives: Here we present an overview of our published studies and some original data on the effects of: (1) prenatal stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) re/activity and hippocampus neuroanatomy in juvenile-adolescent rhesus macaques; (2) prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) on HPA activity, behaviour and prefrontal cortex neuroanatomy in infant-adolescent common marmosets; (3) postnatal daily parental separation stress on HPA re/activity, behaviour, sleep and hippocampus and prefrontal cortex neuroanatomy in infant-adolescent common marmoset.

Results: Prenatal stress increased basal cortisol levels and reduced neurogenesis in macaque. Prenatal DEX was without effect on HPA activity and reduced social play and skilled motor behaviour in marmoset. Postnatal social stress increased basal cortisol levels, reduced social play, increased awakening and reduced hippocampal glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor expression in marmoset.

Conclusions: Perinatal stress-related environmental events exert short- and long-term effects on HPA function, behaviour and brain status in rhesus macaque and common marmoset. The mechanisms mediating the enduring effects remain to be elucidated, with candidates including increased basal HPA function and epigenetic programming.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus