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Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in nonhuman primates.

Grant WF, Gillingham MB, Batra AK, Fewkes NM, Comstock SM, Takahashi D, Braun TP, Grove KL, Friedman JE, Marks DL - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development.Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia.This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neuroscience Graduate Program, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD) contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's) and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR), we found significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and total n-3 FA's in HFD maternal and fetal plasma. Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia. Hepatic apoptosis was also increased in the HFD fetal liver. Switching HFD females to a CTR diet during a subsequent pregnancy normalized fetal DHA, n-3 FA's and fetal hepatic apoptosis to CTR levels. Breast milk from HFD dams contained lower levels of eicosopentanoic acid (EPA) and DHA and lower levels of total protein than CTR breast milk. This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Correlation of fetal plasma fatty acids with maternal plasma fatty acids.Pair-wise correlation analysis of the plasma N6∶N3 fatty acid ratio (A), and plasma EPA levels (B), between CTR, HFD and REV Japanese macaque dams and their respective third trimester fetuses (n = 22 maternal/fetal pairs). Both the plasma N6∶N3 FA ratio and plasma EPA levels are correlated between maternal and fetal circulation. (CTR: white squares, HFD: dark grey circles, REV: grey diamonds).
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pone-0017261-g001: Correlation of fetal plasma fatty acids with maternal plasma fatty acids.Pair-wise correlation analysis of the plasma N6∶N3 fatty acid ratio (A), and plasma EPA levels (B), between CTR, HFD and REV Japanese macaque dams and their respective third trimester fetuses (n = 22 maternal/fetal pairs). Both the plasma N6∶N3 FA ratio and plasma EPA levels are correlated between maternal and fetal circulation. (CTR: white squares, HFD: dark grey circles, REV: grey diamonds).

Mentions: Our model provides us with the ability to perform pair-wise analysis of circulating lipids between individual dams and their offspring to investigate associations between maternal and fetal parameters. Thus, we performed a pairwise correlation analysis and found that there was a significant correlation (Figure 1A) between the maternal n-6∶n-3 ratio and the n-6∶n-3 ratio found in the fetus (Roverall = .63, p = .002). In addition, we found a weaker but statistically significant association (Figure 1B) between maternal EPA and fetal EPA (R = .43overall, p = .045). However, we did not find a statistically significant association between maternal and fetal plasma DHA.


Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in nonhuman primates.

Grant WF, Gillingham MB, Batra AK, Fewkes NM, Comstock SM, Takahashi D, Braun TP, Grove KL, Friedman JE, Marks DL - PLoS ONE (2011)

Correlation of fetal plasma fatty acids with maternal plasma fatty acids.Pair-wise correlation analysis of the plasma N6∶N3 fatty acid ratio (A), and plasma EPA levels (B), between CTR, HFD and REV Japanese macaque dams and their respective third trimester fetuses (n = 22 maternal/fetal pairs). Both the plasma N6∶N3 FA ratio and plasma EPA levels are correlated between maternal and fetal circulation. (CTR: white squares, HFD: dark grey circles, REV: grey diamonds).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3045408&req=5

pone-0017261-g001: Correlation of fetal plasma fatty acids with maternal plasma fatty acids.Pair-wise correlation analysis of the plasma N6∶N3 fatty acid ratio (A), and plasma EPA levels (B), between CTR, HFD and REV Japanese macaque dams and their respective third trimester fetuses (n = 22 maternal/fetal pairs). Both the plasma N6∶N3 FA ratio and plasma EPA levels are correlated between maternal and fetal circulation. (CTR: white squares, HFD: dark grey circles, REV: grey diamonds).
Mentions: Our model provides us with the ability to perform pair-wise analysis of circulating lipids between individual dams and their offspring to investigate associations between maternal and fetal parameters. Thus, we performed a pairwise correlation analysis and found that there was a significant correlation (Figure 1A) between the maternal n-6∶n-3 ratio and the n-6∶n-3 ratio found in the fetus (Roverall = .63, p = .002). In addition, we found a weaker but statistically significant association (Figure 1B) between maternal EPA and fetal EPA (R = .43overall, p = .045). However, we did not find a statistically significant association between maternal and fetal plasma DHA.

Bottom Line: To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development.Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia.This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neuroscience Graduate Program, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD) contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's) and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR), we found significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and total n-3 FA's in HFD maternal and fetal plasma. Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia. Hepatic apoptosis was also increased in the HFD fetal liver. Switching HFD females to a CTR diet during a subsequent pregnancy normalized fetal DHA, n-3 FA's and fetal hepatic apoptosis to CTR levels. Breast milk from HFD dams contained lower levels of eicosopentanoic acid (EPA) and DHA and lower levels of total protein than CTR breast milk. This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus