Limits...
Concordance between vocal and genetic diversity in crested gibbons.

Thinh VN, Hallam C, Roos C, Hammerschmidt K - BMC Evol. Biol. (2011)

Bottom Line: Based on features of male and female songs, we can not only distinguish between N. nasutus, N. concolor and the four southern species (N. leucogenys, N. siki, N. annamensis, N. gabriellae), but also between the latter by applying more detailed analysis.In addition to the significant correlation between song structure and genetic similarity, we find a similar high correlation between song similarity and geographic distance.The results show that the structure of crested gibbon songs is not only a reliable tool to verify phylogenetic relatedness, but also to unravel geographic origins.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Cognitive Ethology Laboratory, German Primate Center, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Goettingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Background: Gibbons or small apes are, next to great apes, our closest living relatives, and form the most diverse group of contemporary hominoids. A characteristic trait of gibbons is their species-specific song structure, which, however, exhibits a certain amount of inter- and intra-individual variation. Although differences in gibbon song structure are routinely applied as taxonomic tool to identify subspecies and species, it remains unclear to which degree acoustic and phylogenetic differences are correlated. To trace this issue, we comparatively analyse song recordings and mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence data from 22 gibbon populations representing six of the seven crested gibbon species (genus Nomascus). In addition, we address whether song similarity and geographic distribution can support a recent hypothesis about the biogeographic history of crested gibbons.

Results: The acoustic analysis of 92 gibbon duets confirms the hypothesised concordance between song structure and phylogeny. Based on features of male and female songs, we can not only distinguish between N. nasutus, N. concolor and the four southern species (N. leucogenys, N. siki, N. annamensis, N. gabriellae), but also between the latter by applying more detailed analysis. In addition to the significant correlation between song structure and genetic similarity, we find a similar high correlation between song similarity and geographic distance.

Conclusions: The results show that the structure of crested gibbon songs is not only a reliable tool to verify phylogenetic relatedness, but also to unravel geographic origins. As vocal production in other nonhuman primate species appears to be evolutionarily based, it is likely that loud calls produced by other species can serve as characters to elucidate phylogenetic relationships.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Spectrogram describing acoustic parameter estimation. Letters mark points used to calculate acoustic parameter (see also Additional File 2).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3044664&req=5

Figure 5: Spectrogram describing acoustic parameter estimation. Letters mark points used to calculate acoustic parameter (see also Additional File 2).

Mentions: We used AVISOFT SASLAB Pro (R. Specht, Berlin, Germany) to generate spectrograms and to calculate acoustic parameters. To find the point with maximum energy at the beginning, ending and anchor points of notes in the frequency spectrum, we used the free reticule cursor tools of AVISOFT (frequency range: up to 500 kHz, frequency resolution: app. 8 Hz, time resolution: 16 ms). In total, we calculated 53 acoustic parameters describing the temporal and frequency structure of male and female gibbon phrases. A detailed description how we measured the acoustic parameters are given in Figure 5. A list with detailed description of the 53 acoustic parameters is given in Additional File 2.


Concordance between vocal and genetic diversity in crested gibbons.

Thinh VN, Hallam C, Roos C, Hammerschmidt K - BMC Evol. Biol. (2011)

Spectrogram describing acoustic parameter estimation. Letters mark points used to calculate acoustic parameter (see also Additional File 2).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3044664&req=5

Figure 5: Spectrogram describing acoustic parameter estimation. Letters mark points used to calculate acoustic parameter (see also Additional File 2).
Mentions: We used AVISOFT SASLAB Pro (R. Specht, Berlin, Germany) to generate spectrograms and to calculate acoustic parameters. To find the point with maximum energy at the beginning, ending and anchor points of notes in the frequency spectrum, we used the free reticule cursor tools of AVISOFT (frequency range: up to 500 kHz, frequency resolution: app. 8 Hz, time resolution: 16 ms). In total, we calculated 53 acoustic parameters describing the temporal and frequency structure of male and female gibbon phrases. A detailed description how we measured the acoustic parameters are given in Figure 5. A list with detailed description of the 53 acoustic parameters is given in Additional File 2.

Bottom Line: Based on features of male and female songs, we can not only distinguish between N. nasutus, N. concolor and the four southern species (N. leucogenys, N. siki, N. annamensis, N. gabriellae), but also between the latter by applying more detailed analysis.In addition to the significant correlation between song structure and genetic similarity, we find a similar high correlation between song similarity and geographic distance.The results show that the structure of crested gibbon songs is not only a reliable tool to verify phylogenetic relatedness, but also to unravel geographic origins.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Cognitive Ethology Laboratory, German Primate Center, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Goettingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Background: Gibbons or small apes are, next to great apes, our closest living relatives, and form the most diverse group of contemporary hominoids. A characteristic trait of gibbons is their species-specific song structure, which, however, exhibits a certain amount of inter- and intra-individual variation. Although differences in gibbon song structure are routinely applied as taxonomic tool to identify subspecies and species, it remains unclear to which degree acoustic and phylogenetic differences are correlated. To trace this issue, we comparatively analyse song recordings and mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence data from 22 gibbon populations representing six of the seven crested gibbon species (genus Nomascus). In addition, we address whether song similarity and geographic distribution can support a recent hypothesis about the biogeographic history of crested gibbons.

Results: The acoustic analysis of 92 gibbon duets confirms the hypothesised concordance between song structure and phylogeny. Based on features of male and female songs, we can not only distinguish between N. nasutus, N. concolor and the four southern species (N. leucogenys, N. siki, N. annamensis, N. gabriellae), but also between the latter by applying more detailed analysis. In addition to the significant correlation between song structure and genetic similarity, we find a similar high correlation between song similarity and geographic distance.

Conclusions: The results show that the structure of crested gibbon songs is not only a reliable tool to verify phylogenetic relatedness, but also to unravel geographic origins. As vocal production in other nonhuman primate species appears to be evolutionarily based, it is likely that loud calls produced by other species can serve as characters to elucidate phylogenetic relationships.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus