Limits...
Application of spectroscopic techniques: ICP-OES, LA-ICP-MS and chemometric methods for studying the relationships between trace elements in clinical samples from patients with atherosclerosis obliterans.

Hanć A, Komorowicz I, Iskra M, Majewski W, Barałkiewicz D - Anal Bioanal Chem (2011)

Bottom Line: Elements are not equally distributed between the inner (intima) and the outer (media + adventitia) layer of the arterial wall.Increased concentration of calcium found in the inner part of the atherosclerotic arterial wall and in the plaque, as compared to the control arterial wall samples, demonstrates the unquestionable role of this element in the calcification of the wall observed in AO.Applied chemometric methods were useful for demonstrating the differences in the element's concentration in blood serum and the arterial wall samples between AO and the control group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Trace Element Analysis by Spectroscopy Methods, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, 6 Grunwaldzka Street, 60-780 Poznań, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The study was aimed to evaluate the influence of the vascular disease, atherosclerotic obliterans (AO), on the location and concentration of elements in the arterial wall and serum. Use of a modern method for studying element's concentration and distribution in samples of clinical material, i.e. laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, is presented. Elements are not equally distributed between the inner (intima) and the outer (media + adventitia) layer of the arterial wall. Among the studied elements, calcium was found to have an unquestionable role in the calcification of the wall. Increased concentration of calcium found in the inner part of the atherosclerotic arterial wall and in the plaque, as compared to the control arterial wall samples, demonstrates the unquestionable role of this element in the calcification of the wall observed in AO. Applied chemometric methods were useful for demonstrating the differences in the element's concentration in blood serum and the arterial wall samples between AO and the control group.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Discrete raw data plot presenting concentration of elements determined in arterial wall samples of patients with AO and control group. H variable which includes data obtained from the control group
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3044238&req=5

Fig10: Discrete raw data plot presenting concentration of elements determined in arterial wall samples of patients with AO and control group. H variable which includes data obtained from the control group

Mentions: In order to display differences between healthy and AO group of patients with regard to elements’ concentrations, two discrete raw data plots (separately for blood serum samples and arterial wall samples) were constructed. Differences were additionally confirmed by executing an analysis of variance test (ANOVA). Application of ANOVA demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the concentration of zinc between control and AO group of patients (Table 5), whereas correlation matrix performed for blood serum samples indicates no statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05). In contrast, highly significant correlations were detected between zinc and calcium in this paper [28]. On the other hand, authors of the next article [29] claim that it is unclear whether calcium accumulation occurs concurrently with zinc, but the strength of the observed correlations supports this conclusion. It is not possible to ascertain whether calcium and zinc accumulation occurs independently of iron and copper or whether all of these metal ions accumulate concurrently. Little is known about the requirements and functions of zinc in maintaining the integrity of the vasculature and the vascular endothelium [29]. In the case of arterial wall samples, the authors obtained significant differences between the concentration of Ca in the control group and its concentration in AO, and also between the concentration of Ca in the control group and Mg in the AO group. The obtained levels of significance were 0.011 and 0.021, respectively. In the case of blood serum samples (Fig. 9), only the application of ANOVA demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the concentration of zinc between controls and AO group of patients. These results were contradicted by Alissa et al. [30]. In this research, zinc concentration in serum or plasma in people with established atherosclerosis obliterans indicates that low zinc levels are associated with increased disease [30]. Generally, it seems that the chosen elements are in the comparable concentration for both groups; so on the basis of blood serum sample analysis, it could be stated that these elements do not participate in atherosclerosis development. However, looking at the results of element concentrations in arterial wall samples (Fig. 10), significant differences between calcium may be noticed. Definitely, they differ about few levels of magnitude. It may be concluded that calcium is a significant element participating in the atherosclerosis development and that it cumulates in the intima where it can create lodgments and calcify the plaques, which may lead to clogging of the arteries. It was also demonstrated that analysing elements only in blood serum samples does not give precise information on the progress of calcification of the atherosclerotic wall and other element accumulation.Table 5


Application of spectroscopic techniques: ICP-OES, LA-ICP-MS and chemometric methods for studying the relationships between trace elements in clinical samples from patients with atherosclerosis obliterans.

Hanć A, Komorowicz I, Iskra M, Majewski W, Barałkiewicz D - Anal Bioanal Chem (2011)

Discrete raw data plot presenting concentration of elements determined in arterial wall samples of patients with AO and control group. H variable which includes data obtained from the control group
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3044238&req=5

Fig10: Discrete raw data plot presenting concentration of elements determined in arterial wall samples of patients with AO and control group. H variable which includes data obtained from the control group
Mentions: In order to display differences between healthy and AO group of patients with regard to elements’ concentrations, two discrete raw data plots (separately for blood serum samples and arterial wall samples) were constructed. Differences were additionally confirmed by executing an analysis of variance test (ANOVA). Application of ANOVA demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the concentration of zinc between control and AO group of patients (Table 5), whereas correlation matrix performed for blood serum samples indicates no statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05). In contrast, highly significant correlations were detected between zinc and calcium in this paper [28]. On the other hand, authors of the next article [29] claim that it is unclear whether calcium accumulation occurs concurrently with zinc, but the strength of the observed correlations supports this conclusion. It is not possible to ascertain whether calcium and zinc accumulation occurs independently of iron and copper or whether all of these metal ions accumulate concurrently. Little is known about the requirements and functions of zinc in maintaining the integrity of the vasculature and the vascular endothelium [29]. In the case of arterial wall samples, the authors obtained significant differences between the concentration of Ca in the control group and its concentration in AO, and also between the concentration of Ca in the control group and Mg in the AO group. The obtained levels of significance were 0.011 and 0.021, respectively. In the case of blood serum samples (Fig. 9), only the application of ANOVA demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the concentration of zinc between controls and AO group of patients. These results were contradicted by Alissa et al. [30]. In this research, zinc concentration in serum or plasma in people with established atherosclerosis obliterans indicates that low zinc levels are associated with increased disease [30]. Generally, it seems that the chosen elements are in the comparable concentration for both groups; so on the basis of blood serum sample analysis, it could be stated that these elements do not participate in atherosclerosis development. However, looking at the results of element concentrations in arterial wall samples (Fig. 10), significant differences between calcium may be noticed. Definitely, they differ about few levels of magnitude. It may be concluded that calcium is a significant element participating in the atherosclerosis development and that it cumulates in the intima where it can create lodgments and calcify the plaques, which may lead to clogging of the arteries. It was also demonstrated that analysing elements only in blood serum samples does not give precise information on the progress of calcification of the atherosclerotic wall and other element accumulation.Table 5

Bottom Line: Elements are not equally distributed between the inner (intima) and the outer (media + adventitia) layer of the arterial wall.Increased concentration of calcium found in the inner part of the atherosclerotic arterial wall and in the plaque, as compared to the control arterial wall samples, demonstrates the unquestionable role of this element in the calcification of the wall observed in AO.Applied chemometric methods were useful for demonstrating the differences in the element's concentration in blood serum and the arterial wall samples between AO and the control group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Trace Element Analysis by Spectroscopy Methods, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, 6 Grunwaldzka Street, 60-780 Poznań, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The study was aimed to evaluate the influence of the vascular disease, atherosclerotic obliterans (AO), on the location and concentration of elements in the arterial wall and serum. Use of a modern method for studying element's concentration and distribution in samples of clinical material, i.e. laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, is presented. Elements are not equally distributed between the inner (intima) and the outer (media + adventitia) layer of the arterial wall. Among the studied elements, calcium was found to have an unquestionable role in the calcification of the wall. Increased concentration of calcium found in the inner part of the atherosclerotic arterial wall and in the plaque, as compared to the control arterial wall samples, demonstrates the unquestionable role of this element in the calcification of the wall observed in AO. Applied chemometric methods were useful for demonstrating the differences in the element's concentration in blood serum and the arterial wall samples between AO and the control group.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus