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The endothelium and its role in regulating vascular tone.

Sandoo A, van Zanten JJ, Metsios GS, Carroll D, Kitas GD - Open Cardiovasc Med J (2010)

Bottom Line: The endothelium forms an important part of the vasculature and is involved in promoting an atheroprotective environment via the complementary actions of endothelial cell-derived vasoactive factors.The present review aims to provide an insight into the anatomy of the vasculature as well as the underlying endothelial cell physiology.In addition, an in-depth overview of the current methods used to assess vascular function and structure is provided as well as their link to certain clinical populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The endothelium forms an important part of the vasculature and is involved in promoting an atheroprotective environment via the complementary actions of endothelial cell-derived vasoactive factors. Disruption of vascular homeostasis can lead to the development of endothelial dysfunction which in turn contributes to the early and late stages of atherosclerosis. In recent years an increasing number of non-invasive vascular tests have been developed to assess vascular structure and function in different clinical populations. The present review aims to provide an insight into the anatomy of the vasculature as well as the underlying endothelial cell physiology. In addition, an in-depth overview of the current methods used to assess vascular function and structure is provided as well as their link to certain clinical populations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

An overview of the assessments for endothelial function and vascular structure performed in different vascular beds. ACh = Acetylcholine, SNP = Sodium nitroprusside.
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Figure 2: An overview of the assessments for endothelial function and vascular structure performed in different vascular beds. ACh = Acetylcholine, SNP = Sodium nitroprusside.

Mentions: Endothelial function is most commonly assessed in the peripheral circulation as direct assessment of endothelial function in the coronary arteries is highly invasive and associated with considerable risk for the participant. Several studies have reported close correlations between peripheral and coronary endothelial function [96-98]. In addition, assessments of endothelial function are good predictors of future cardiac events in individuals at risk of CVD and those with established CVD [99, 100], and ED is common in individuals with CVD risk factors [101]. Most assessments of endothelial function involve the measurement of dilation in response to a stimulus, with impaired vasodilatation indicative of poor endothelial function. However, impaired vasodilatation can be the result of either the endothelium not sending the signals to the smooth muscle or of the smooth muscle cells not being able to respond to the signal and dilate. Therefore, in order to distinguish between ED and smooth muscle dysfunction, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilatation are typically assessed. Techniques that assess endothelial function in different vascular beds is shown in Fig. (2) and described in more detail below.


The endothelium and its role in regulating vascular tone.

Sandoo A, van Zanten JJ, Metsios GS, Carroll D, Kitas GD - Open Cardiovasc Med J (2010)

An overview of the assessments for endothelial function and vascular structure performed in different vascular beds. ACh = Acetylcholine, SNP = Sodium nitroprusside.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3040999&req=5

Figure 2: An overview of the assessments for endothelial function and vascular structure performed in different vascular beds. ACh = Acetylcholine, SNP = Sodium nitroprusside.
Mentions: Endothelial function is most commonly assessed in the peripheral circulation as direct assessment of endothelial function in the coronary arteries is highly invasive and associated with considerable risk for the participant. Several studies have reported close correlations between peripheral and coronary endothelial function [96-98]. In addition, assessments of endothelial function are good predictors of future cardiac events in individuals at risk of CVD and those with established CVD [99, 100], and ED is common in individuals with CVD risk factors [101]. Most assessments of endothelial function involve the measurement of dilation in response to a stimulus, with impaired vasodilatation indicative of poor endothelial function. However, impaired vasodilatation can be the result of either the endothelium not sending the signals to the smooth muscle or of the smooth muscle cells not being able to respond to the signal and dilate. Therefore, in order to distinguish between ED and smooth muscle dysfunction, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilatation are typically assessed. Techniques that assess endothelial function in different vascular beds is shown in Fig. (2) and described in more detail below.

Bottom Line: The endothelium forms an important part of the vasculature and is involved in promoting an atheroprotective environment via the complementary actions of endothelial cell-derived vasoactive factors.The present review aims to provide an insight into the anatomy of the vasculature as well as the underlying endothelial cell physiology.In addition, an in-depth overview of the current methods used to assess vascular function and structure is provided as well as their link to certain clinical populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The endothelium forms an important part of the vasculature and is involved in promoting an atheroprotective environment via the complementary actions of endothelial cell-derived vasoactive factors. Disruption of vascular homeostasis can lead to the development of endothelial dysfunction which in turn contributes to the early and late stages of atherosclerosis. In recent years an increasing number of non-invasive vascular tests have been developed to assess vascular structure and function in different clinical populations. The present review aims to provide an insight into the anatomy of the vasculature as well as the underlying endothelial cell physiology. In addition, an in-depth overview of the current methods used to assess vascular function and structure is provided as well as their link to certain clinical populations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus