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A porcine model of acute, haematogenous, localized osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus aureus: a pathomorphological study.

Johansen LK, Frees D, Aalbaek B, Koch J, Iburg T, Nielsen OL, Leifsson PS, Jensen HE - APMIS (2010)

Bottom Line: Often, bone lesions resulted in trabecular osteonecrosis.The present localized model of acute haematogenous osteomyelitis revealed a pattern of development and presence of lesions similar to the situation in children.Therefore, this model should be reliably applied in studies of this disease with respect to e.g. pathophysiology and pathomorphology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark. louise-k@life.ku.dk

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Histopathology in pigs inoculated intra-arterially (a. brachialis dextra) with 50 000 CFU/kg BW. (A) Radius: a microabscess located deep in the metaphyseal area, H&E. (B) Metacarpale III: colonies of bacteria (→) are present at the junction between the growth plate (GP) and the metaphysis (MP) and the epiphysis (EP), H&E. (C) Epiphysis of phalanx proximalis III: multiple Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are seen centrally in the microabscess. Surrounding cells are arranged in a pattern of palisades. Immunostaining for S. aureus. (D) The centre of the microabscesses was made up by accumulation of neutrophils, H&E. (E) Within the blood vessels of the growth plate (GP), fibrin deposition was sometimes observed (→), phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin (PTAH). (F) Osteonecrosis (→) was often present just beneath the growth plate together with areas of necrotic bone marrow cells (), H&E. (G) Trabeculae with empty lacunae () were typically surrounded by bone resorbing osteoclasts (→), H&E. (H) Multiple S. aureus bacteria were often identified in connection with the capillary loops at the junction between the growth plate (GP) and the metaphysis (MP). Immunostaining for S. aureus.
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fig02: Histopathology in pigs inoculated intra-arterially (a. brachialis dextra) with 50 000 CFU/kg BW. (A) Radius: a microabscess located deep in the metaphyseal area, H&E. (B) Metacarpale III: colonies of bacteria (→) are present at the junction between the growth plate (GP) and the metaphysis (MP) and the epiphysis (EP), H&E. (C) Epiphysis of phalanx proximalis III: multiple Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are seen centrally in the microabscess. Surrounding cells are arranged in a pattern of palisades. Immunostaining for S. aureus. (D) The centre of the microabscesses was made up by accumulation of neutrophils, H&E. (E) Within the blood vessels of the growth plate (GP), fibrin deposition was sometimes observed (→), phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin (PTAH). (F) Osteonecrosis (→) was often present just beneath the growth plate together with areas of necrotic bone marrow cells (), H&E. (G) Trabeculae with empty lacunae () were typically surrounded by bone resorbing osteoclasts (→), H&E. (H) Multiple S. aureus bacteria were often identified in connection with the capillary loops at the junction between the growth plate (GP) and the metaphysis (MP). Immunostaining for S. aureus.

Mentions: Intra-arterial inoculation into a. brachialis dexter of pigs with S. aureus results in the development of osteomyelitis lesions in different bones supplied by the artery, whereas lesions were not observed in the control animals (Table 1). Bacteria and accompanied inflammatory reaction were localized deep in the metaphysis, next to the cartilage of the growth plate, or next to the resting zone of the growth plate, i.e. in the epiphysis (Fig. 2A–C). HO is most common in prepubertal children where the lesions typically initiate adjacent to the growth plate (1, 9). Occasionally, children with HO show acute signs of infection including fever, irritability, lethargy and local signs of inflammation (2). These clinical manifestations of paediatric osteomyelitis parallel the pattern in the present porcine model of acute stages of HO as five pigs were killed on day five or eight because of lameness of the infected leg (Table 1). Pigs killed 5 days after challenge displayed clinical signs of inflammation characterized by fever, i.e. a rectal temperature above 39.5 °C, and by oedema, redness and heat of the infected leg. Wound infections with phlegmon formation were apparent in three of the pigs (Table 1). Both pigs in the control group remained healthy throughout the trial.


A porcine model of acute, haematogenous, localized osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus aureus: a pathomorphological study.

Johansen LK, Frees D, Aalbaek B, Koch J, Iburg T, Nielsen OL, Leifsson PS, Jensen HE - APMIS (2010)

Histopathology in pigs inoculated intra-arterially (a. brachialis dextra) with 50 000 CFU/kg BW. (A) Radius: a microabscess located deep in the metaphyseal area, H&E. (B) Metacarpale III: colonies of bacteria (→) are present at the junction between the growth plate (GP) and the metaphysis (MP) and the epiphysis (EP), H&E. (C) Epiphysis of phalanx proximalis III: multiple Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are seen centrally in the microabscess. Surrounding cells are arranged in a pattern of palisades. Immunostaining for S. aureus. (D) The centre of the microabscesses was made up by accumulation of neutrophils, H&E. (E) Within the blood vessels of the growth plate (GP), fibrin deposition was sometimes observed (→), phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin (PTAH). (F) Osteonecrosis (→) was often present just beneath the growth plate together with areas of necrotic bone marrow cells (), H&E. (G) Trabeculae with empty lacunae () were typically surrounded by bone resorbing osteoclasts (→), H&E. (H) Multiple S. aureus bacteria were often identified in connection with the capillary loops at the junction between the growth plate (GP) and the metaphysis (MP). Immunostaining for S. aureus.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3040840&req=5

fig02: Histopathology in pigs inoculated intra-arterially (a. brachialis dextra) with 50 000 CFU/kg BW. (A) Radius: a microabscess located deep in the metaphyseal area, H&E. (B) Metacarpale III: colonies of bacteria (→) are present at the junction between the growth plate (GP) and the metaphysis (MP) and the epiphysis (EP), H&E. (C) Epiphysis of phalanx proximalis III: multiple Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are seen centrally in the microabscess. Surrounding cells are arranged in a pattern of palisades. Immunostaining for S. aureus. (D) The centre of the microabscesses was made up by accumulation of neutrophils, H&E. (E) Within the blood vessels of the growth plate (GP), fibrin deposition was sometimes observed (→), phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin (PTAH). (F) Osteonecrosis (→) was often present just beneath the growth plate together with areas of necrotic bone marrow cells (), H&E. (G) Trabeculae with empty lacunae () were typically surrounded by bone resorbing osteoclasts (→), H&E. (H) Multiple S. aureus bacteria were often identified in connection with the capillary loops at the junction between the growth plate (GP) and the metaphysis (MP). Immunostaining for S. aureus.
Mentions: Intra-arterial inoculation into a. brachialis dexter of pigs with S. aureus results in the development of osteomyelitis lesions in different bones supplied by the artery, whereas lesions were not observed in the control animals (Table 1). Bacteria and accompanied inflammatory reaction were localized deep in the metaphysis, next to the cartilage of the growth plate, or next to the resting zone of the growth plate, i.e. in the epiphysis (Fig. 2A–C). HO is most common in prepubertal children where the lesions typically initiate adjacent to the growth plate (1, 9). Occasionally, children with HO show acute signs of infection including fever, irritability, lethargy and local signs of inflammation (2). These clinical manifestations of paediatric osteomyelitis parallel the pattern in the present porcine model of acute stages of HO as five pigs were killed on day five or eight because of lameness of the infected leg (Table 1). Pigs killed 5 days after challenge displayed clinical signs of inflammation characterized by fever, i.e. a rectal temperature above 39.5 °C, and by oedema, redness and heat of the infected leg. Wound infections with phlegmon formation were apparent in three of the pigs (Table 1). Both pigs in the control group remained healthy throughout the trial.

Bottom Line: Often, bone lesions resulted in trabecular osteonecrosis.The present localized model of acute haematogenous osteomyelitis revealed a pattern of development and presence of lesions similar to the situation in children.Therefore, this model should be reliably applied in studies of this disease with respect to e.g. pathophysiology and pathomorphology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark. louise-k@life.ku.dk

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus