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A porcine model of acute, haematogenous, localized osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus aureus: a pathomorphological study.

Johansen LK, Frees D, Aalbaek B, Koch J, Iburg T, Nielsen OL, Leifsson PS, Jensen HE - APMIS (2010)

Bottom Line: Often, bone lesions resulted in trabecular osteonecrosis.The present localized model of acute haematogenous osteomyelitis revealed a pattern of development and presence of lesions similar to the situation in children.Therefore, this model should be reliably applied in studies of this disease with respect to e.g. pathophysiology and pathomorphology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark. louise-k@life.ku.dk

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The inoculation procedure. (A) Anaesthetized pig in right lateral recumbency with the right medial ante-brachium prepared for surgery. (B) Schematic drawing, the skin incision is indicated by the punctured line and the asterisk (*) shows the location of the bone protuberance epicondylus medialis humeri. (C) Inoculation through a catheter equipped with a three-way stopcock inserted into the right brachial artery fixated with a ligature ().
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fig01: The inoculation procedure. (A) Anaesthetized pig in right lateral recumbency with the right medial ante-brachium prepared for surgery. (B) Schematic drawing, the skin incision is indicated by the punctured line and the asterisk (*) shows the location of the bone protuberance epicondylus medialis humeri. (C) Inoculation through a catheter equipped with a three-way stopcock inserted into the right brachial artery fixated with a ligature ().

Mentions: The animals, which remained clinically healthy during the time of acclimatization, were randomly assigned into six groups (A–F) of two pigs, each receiving one of the five doses. One group received a placebo inoculation with sterile saline. An overview of the design is given in Table 1. After sedation as described recently (17), the pigs were placed in right lateral recumbency. Flexing of the left front leg made the medial right ante-brachium available for surgery (Fig. 1A). Sterile conditions were maintained during the entire inoculation procedure. A skin incision (3 cm) starting at epicondylus medialis humeri and going distally parallel to the radial bone was made (Fig. 1B) making the pronator teres and flexor carpi radialis muscles visible. Separation of the muscles led to accessibility to the brachial artery and vein. Arteria brachialis (a. brachialis) was purified and isolated from the surrounding tissue, and two loose ligatures (Vicryl 4/0 ETHICON; Johnson & Johnson Company, St-Stevens-Woluwe, Belgium) were placed around the artery. The artery was ligated with the proximal ligature and a catheter (Optiva I.V. Catheter 22G; Smiths Medical, Milano, Italy) equipped with a three-way stopcock (Discofix 3-way stopcock, B. Braun, Melsungen, Germany) was guided a few centimetres into the artery in the distal direction. Inoculation was performed through the catheter which afterwards was flushed with 5 mL of sterile saline (Fig. 1C). While carefully removing the catheter, the distal ligature was tightened. The subcutaneous tissue was sutured in a continuous pattern (Vicryl plus 4/0 ETHICON, Johnson & Johnson Company), and the skin by four sutures in an interrupted pattern (Vicryl plus 4/0 ETHICON, Johnson & Johnson Company). After surgery, the animals lived for 5–15 days whereupon they were killed by an overdose of 20% pentobarbital given intravenously (Table 1). Throughout the experimental period, lame animals received intramuscular injections of buprenorfin (Temgesic 0.3 mg/mL; Schering-Plough, Heist-op-den-Berg, Belgium) every sixth to eighth hour.


A porcine model of acute, haematogenous, localized osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus aureus: a pathomorphological study.

Johansen LK, Frees D, Aalbaek B, Koch J, Iburg T, Nielsen OL, Leifsson PS, Jensen HE - APMIS (2010)

The inoculation procedure. (A) Anaesthetized pig in right lateral recumbency with the right medial ante-brachium prepared for surgery. (B) Schematic drawing, the skin incision is indicated by the punctured line and the asterisk (*) shows the location of the bone protuberance epicondylus medialis humeri. (C) Inoculation through a catheter equipped with a three-way stopcock inserted into the right brachial artery fixated with a ligature ().
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3040840&req=5

fig01: The inoculation procedure. (A) Anaesthetized pig in right lateral recumbency with the right medial ante-brachium prepared for surgery. (B) Schematic drawing, the skin incision is indicated by the punctured line and the asterisk (*) shows the location of the bone protuberance epicondylus medialis humeri. (C) Inoculation through a catheter equipped with a three-way stopcock inserted into the right brachial artery fixated with a ligature ().
Mentions: The animals, which remained clinically healthy during the time of acclimatization, were randomly assigned into six groups (A–F) of two pigs, each receiving one of the five doses. One group received a placebo inoculation with sterile saline. An overview of the design is given in Table 1. After sedation as described recently (17), the pigs were placed in right lateral recumbency. Flexing of the left front leg made the medial right ante-brachium available for surgery (Fig. 1A). Sterile conditions were maintained during the entire inoculation procedure. A skin incision (3 cm) starting at epicondylus medialis humeri and going distally parallel to the radial bone was made (Fig. 1B) making the pronator teres and flexor carpi radialis muscles visible. Separation of the muscles led to accessibility to the brachial artery and vein. Arteria brachialis (a. brachialis) was purified and isolated from the surrounding tissue, and two loose ligatures (Vicryl 4/0 ETHICON; Johnson & Johnson Company, St-Stevens-Woluwe, Belgium) were placed around the artery. The artery was ligated with the proximal ligature and a catheter (Optiva I.V. Catheter 22G; Smiths Medical, Milano, Italy) equipped with a three-way stopcock (Discofix 3-way stopcock, B. Braun, Melsungen, Germany) was guided a few centimetres into the artery in the distal direction. Inoculation was performed through the catheter which afterwards was flushed with 5 mL of sterile saline (Fig. 1C). While carefully removing the catheter, the distal ligature was tightened. The subcutaneous tissue was sutured in a continuous pattern (Vicryl plus 4/0 ETHICON, Johnson & Johnson Company), and the skin by four sutures in an interrupted pattern (Vicryl plus 4/0 ETHICON, Johnson & Johnson Company). After surgery, the animals lived for 5–15 days whereupon they were killed by an overdose of 20% pentobarbital given intravenously (Table 1). Throughout the experimental period, lame animals received intramuscular injections of buprenorfin (Temgesic 0.3 mg/mL; Schering-Plough, Heist-op-den-Berg, Belgium) every sixth to eighth hour.

Bottom Line: Often, bone lesions resulted in trabecular osteonecrosis.The present localized model of acute haematogenous osteomyelitis revealed a pattern of development and presence of lesions similar to the situation in children.Therefore, this model should be reliably applied in studies of this disease with respect to e.g. pathophysiology and pathomorphology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark. louise-k@life.ku.dk

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus