Limits...
Connectivity of the Asiatic wild ass population in the Mongolian Gobi.

Kaczensky P, Kuehn R, Lhagvasuren B, Pietsch S, Yang W, Walzer C - Biol. Conserv. (2011)

Bottom Line: Population genetics results identified two subpopulations and delineated a genetic boundary between the Dzungarian and Transaltai Gobi for which the most likely explanation are the mountain ranges separating the two areas.Home ranges and locations of 19 radiomarked wild asses support the assumed restricting effects of more productive habitats and mountain ranges and additionally point towards a barrier effect of fences.In the southwest Gobi, allowing for openings in the border fence to China and managing the border area as an ecological corridor would connect three large protected areas together covering over 70,000 km(2) of wild ass habitat.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT
Long-distance migrations of wildlife have been identified as important biological phenomena, but their conservation remains a major challenge. The Mongolian Gobi is one of the last refuges for the Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) and other threatened migratory mammals. Using historic and current distribution ranges, population genetics, and telemetry data we assessed the connectivity of the wild ass population in the context of natural and anthropogenic landscape features and the existing network of protected areas. In the Mongolian Gobi mean biomass production is highly correlated with human and livestock density and seems to predict wild ass occurrence at the upper level. The current wild ass distribution range largely falls into areas below the 250 gC/m(2)/year productivity isoline, suggesting that under the present land use more productive areas have become unavailable for wild asses. Population genetics results identified two subpopulations and delineated a genetic boundary between the Dzungarian and Transaltai Gobi for which the most likely explanation are the mountain ranges separating the two areas. Home ranges and locations of 19 radiomarked wild asses support the assumed restricting effects of more productive habitats and mountain ranges and additionally point towards a barrier effect of fences. Furthermore, telemetry data shows that in the Dzungarian and Transaltai Gobi individual wild ass rarely ventured outside of the protected areas, whereas in the southeast Gobi asses only spend a small fraction of their time within the protected area network. Conserving the continuity of the wild ass population will need a landscape level approach, also including multi-use landscapes outside of protected areas, particularly in the southeast Gobi. In the southwest Gobi, allowing for openings in the border fence to China and managing the border area as an ecological corridor would connect three large protected areas together covering over 70,000 km(2) of wild ass habitat.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Synthesis map combining geographical and genetic data. To delineate the spatial organization of the populations, we combined geographical and genetic data. The synthesis map shows the average proportion of membership of each sample to the two subpopulations based on the CLUMPP analysis (dark red = 0% Dzungarian Gobi/100% southeast Gobi; dark blue = 100% Dzungarian Gobi/0% southeast Gobi). The samples are geo-referenced and the membership surface between the samples was interpolated using the kriging procedure available in the program SurGeE 1.4.0 (http://www.geocities.com/miroslavdressler/surgemain.htm). (A) 2-dimensional view of colour coded isolines of equal proportions, (B) 3-dimensional view with same colour coding and average proportions of membership for z-value (high z-values delineate samples with a high membership value for the southeast Gobi, low z-values delineate samples with a low membership value for the southeast Gobi). The numbers at the base of the graph provide the geographic coordinates.
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f0015: Synthesis map combining geographical and genetic data. To delineate the spatial organization of the populations, we combined geographical and genetic data. The synthesis map shows the average proportion of membership of each sample to the two subpopulations based on the CLUMPP analysis (dark red = 0% Dzungarian Gobi/100% southeast Gobi; dark blue = 100% Dzungarian Gobi/0% southeast Gobi). The samples are geo-referenced and the membership surface between the samples was interpolated using the kriging procedure available in the program SurGeE 1.4.0 (http://www.geocities.com/miroslavdressler/surgemain.htm). (A) 2-dimensional view of colour coded isolines of equal proportions, (B) 3-dimensional view with same colour coding and average proportions of membership for z-value (high z-values delineate samples with a high membership value for the southeast Gobi, low z-values delineate samples with a low membership value for the southeast Gobi). The numbers at the base of the graph provide the geographic coordinates.

Mentions: The highest FST value was observed between the Dzungarian and the southeastern Gobi (FST = 0.0191), the lowest between the Transaltai and the southeastern Gobi (FST = 0.0068), and an intermediate between the Dzungarian and the Transaltai Gobi (FST = 0.0088; all pairwise FST values were highly significant at P < 0.001). The Mantel analysis did not reveal an “isolation by distance” relationship (no significant positive correlation between genetic and geographical distances; r2 = 0.0115; P > 0.05). Individual multilocus genotypes-based STRUCTURE analyses clearly indicated the presence of a substructure, with the most likely grouping into two subpopulations. CLUMPP analysis showed that the samples from the Dzungarian and the southeastern Gobi cluster separately, whereas samples from the Transaltai Gobi were undefined (see Supporting Data Appendix S6). BARRIER analysis identified one genetic boundary with 89% of the bootstrap values between the Dzungarian and the Transaltai Gobi (Fig. 3, also see Supporting Data Appendix S6).


Connectivity of the Asiatic wild ass population in the Mongolian Gobi.

Kaczensky P, Kuehn R, Lhagvasuren B, Pietsch S, Yang W, Walzer C - Biol. Conserv. (2011)

Synthesis map combining geographical and genetic data. To delineate the spatial organization of the populations, we combined geographical and genetic data. The synthesis map shows the average proportion of membership of each sample to the two subpopulations based on the CLUMPP analysis (dark red = 0% Dzungarian Gobi/100% southeast Gobi; dark blue = 100% Dzungarian Gobi/0% southeast Gobi). The samples are geo-referenced and the membership surface between the samples was interpolated using the kriging procedure available in the program SurGeE 1.4.0 (http://www.geocities.com/miroslavdressler/surgemain.htm). (A) 2-dimensional view of colour coded isolines of equal proportions, (B) 3-dimensional view with same colour coding and average proportions of membership for z-value (high z-values delineate samples with a high membership value for the southeast Gobi, low z-values delineate samples with a low membership value for the southeast Gobi). The numbers at the base of the graph provide the geographic coordinates.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3040789&req=5

f0015: Synthesis map combining geographical and genetic data. To delineate the spatial organization of the populations, we combined geographical and genetic data. The synthesis map shows the average proportion of membership of each sample to the two subpopulations based on the CLUMPP analysis (dark red = 0% Dzungarian Gobi/100% southeast Gobi; dark blue = 100% Dzungarian Gobi/0% southeast Gobi). The samples are geo-referenced and the membership surface between the samples was interpolated using the kriging procedure available in the program SurGeE 1.4.0 (http://www.geocities.com/miroslavdressler/surgemain.htm). (A) 2-dimensional view of colour coded isolines of equal proportions, (B) 3-dimensional view with same colour coding and average proportions of membership for z-value (high z-values delineate samples with a high membership value for the southeast Gobi, low z-values delineate samples with a low membership value for the southeast Gobi). The numbers at the base of the graph provide the geographic coordinates.
Mentions: The highest FST value was observed between the Dzungarian and the southeastern Gobi (FST = 0.0191), the lowest between the Transaltai and the southeastern Gobi (FST = 0.0068), and an intermediate between the Dzungarian and the Transaltai Gobi (FST = 0.0088; all pairwise FST values were highly significant at P < 0.001). The Mantel analysis did not reveal an “isolation by distance” relationship (no significant positive correlation between genetic and geographical distances; r2 = 0.0115; P > 0.05). Individual multilocus genotypes-based STRUCTURE analyses clearly indicated the presence of a substructure, with the most likely grouping into two subpopulations. CLUMPP analysis showed that the samples from the Dzungarian and the southeastern Gobi cluster separately, whereas samples from the Transaltai Gobi were undefined (see Supporting Data Appendix S6). BARRIER analysis identified one genetic boundary with 89% of the bootstrap values between the Dzungarian and the Transaltai Gobi (Fig. 3, also see Supporting Data Appendix S6).

Bottom Line: Population genetics results identified two subpopulations and delineated a genetic boundary between the Dzungarian and Transaltai Gobi for which the most likely explanation are the mountain ranges separating the two areas.Home ranges and locations of 19 radiomarked wild asses support the assumed restricting effects of more productive habitats and mountain ranges and additionally point towards a barrier effect of fences.In the southwest Gobi, allowing for openings in the border fence to China and managing the border area as an ecological corridor would connect three large protected areas together covering over 70,000 km(2) of wild ass habitat.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT
Long-distance migrations of wildlife have been identified as important biological phenomena, but their conservation remains a major challenge. The Mongolian Gobi is one of the last refuges for the Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) and other threatened migratory mammals. Using historic and current distribution ranges, population genetics, and telemetry data we assessed the connectivity of the wild ass population in the context of natural and anthropogenic landscape features and the existing network of protected areas. In the Mongolian Gobi mean biomass production is highly correlated with human and livestock density and seems to predict wild ass occurrence at the upper level. The current wild ass distribution range largely falls into areas below the 250 gC/m(2)/year productivity isoline, suggesting that under the present land use more productive areas have become unavailable for wild asses. Population genetics results identified two subpopulations and delineated a genetic boundary between the Dzungarian and Transaltai Gobi for which the most likely explanation are the mountain ranges separating the two areas. Home ranges and locations of 19 radiomarked wild asses support the assumed restricting effects of more productive habitats and mountain ranges and additionally point towards a barrier effect of fences. Furthermore, telemetry data shows that in the Dzungarian and Transaltai Gobi individual wild ass rarely ventured outside of the protected areas, whereas in the southeast Gobi asses only spend a small fraction of their time within the protected area network. Conserving the continuity of the wild ass population will need a landscape level approach, also including multi-use landscapes outside of protected areas, particularly in the southeast Gobi. In the southwest Gobi, allowing for openings in the border fence to China and managing the border area as an ecological corridor would connect three large protected areas together covering over 70,000 km(2) of wild ass habitat.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus