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Virus infection suppresses Nicotiana benthamiana adaptive phenotypic plasticity.

Bedhomme S, Elena SF - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: Our results indicate that the modification of intraspecific competition by parasitism is not present in the Nicotiana benthamiana--potyvirus system and suggests that this phenomenon is not universal but depends on the peculiarities of each pathosystem.However, whereas the healthy N. benthamiana presented a clear shade avoidance syndrome, this phenotypic plasticity totally disappeared when the plants were infected with TEV and TuMV, very likely resulting in a fitness loss and being another form of indirect cost of parasitism.This result suggests that the suppression or the alteration of adaptive phenotypic plasticity might be a component of virulence that is often overlooked.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain. stebed@upvnet.upv.es

ABSTRACT
Competition and parasitism are two important selective forces that shape life-histories, migration rates and population dynamics. Recently, it has been shown in various pathosystems that parasites can modify intraspecific competition, thus generating an indirect cost of parasitism. Here, we investigated if this phenomenon was present in a plant-potyvirus system using two viruses of different virulence (Tobacco etch virus and Turnip mosaic virus). Moreover, we asked if parasitism interacted with the shade avoidance syndrome, the plant-specific phenotypic plasticity in response to intraspecific competition. Our results indicate that the modification of intraspecific competition by parasitism is not present in the Nicotiana benthamiana--potyvirus system and suggests that this phenomenon is not universal but depends on the peculiarities of each pathosystem. However, whereas the healthy N. benthamiana presented a clear shade avoidance syndrome, this phenotypic plasticity totally disappeared when the plants were infected with TEV and TuMV, very likely resulting in a fitness loss and being another form of indirect cost of parasitism. This result suggests that the suppression or the alteration of adaptive phenotypic plasticity might be a component of virulence that is often overlooked.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of total competitor weight on plant growth.Regression of (a) height, (b) fresh weight and (c) medium internode length over total competitor fresh weight for healthy central plants (black circles, continuous line), TEV infected central plants (empty circles, grey line) and TuMV infected central plant (triangles, dashed line).
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pone-0017275-g003: Effect of total competitor weight on plant growth.Regression of (a) height, (b) fresh weight and (c) medium internode length over total competitor fresh weight for healthy central plants (black circles, continuous line), TEV infected central plants (empty circles, grey line) and TuMV infected central plant (triangles, dashed line).

Mentions: Finally, to determine if viral infection interplayed with the shade avoidance syndrome, we performed an ANCOVA with infection status of the central plant as a factor, the total fresh weight of competitors as a covariable and height, fresh weight and mean internode length of the central plant as dependent variables. The interaction between the fixed factor and the covariable was also included in the analysis. The full results of these analyses are presented in table 3. In brief, for fresh weight, the effect of the virus was significant but neither the total fresh weight of competitors nor the interaction term were significant. By contrast, for height and internode length, all effects, including the interaction, were significant. For these two variables, the interaction was due to the fact that for healthy plants, there is a positive relationship between the total fresh weight of competitors and the height or internode distance whereas this relationship does not exist for plants infected either by TEV or TuMV (figure 3). When looking at each focal plant independently, the regression between total competitor fresh weight and plant height is significant for healthy plants (P<0.001) but not for TEV-infected (P = 0.848) or TuMV-infected (P = 0.311) plants. In the same way, the regression between total competitor fresh weight and mean internode distance is significant for healthy plants (P = 0.003) but not for TEV-infected (P = 0.180) or TuMV-infected (P = 0.344) plants.


Virus infection suppresses Nicotiana benthamiana adaptive phenotypic plasticity.

Bedhomme S, Elena SF - PLoS ONE (2011)

Effect of total competitor weight on plant growth.Regression of (a) height, (b) fresh weight and (c) medium internode length over total competitor fresh weight for healthy central plants (black circles, continuous line), TEV infected central plants (empty circles, grey line) and TuMV infected central plant (triangles, dashed line).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3040767&req=5

pone-0017275-g003: Effect of total competitor weight on plant growth.Regression of (a) height, (b) fresh weight and (c) medium internode length over total competitor fresh weight for healthy central plants (black circles, continuous line), TEV infected central plants (empty circles, grey line) and TuMV infected central plant (triangles, dashed line).
Mentions: Finally, to determine if viral infection interplayed with the shade avoidance syndrome, we performed an ANCOVA with infection status of the central plant as a factor, the total fresh weight of competitors as a covariable and height, fresh weight and mean internode length of the central plant as dependent variables. The interaction between the fixed factor and the covariable was also included in the analysis. The full results of these analyses are presented in table 3. In brief, for fresh weight, the effect of the virus was significant but neither the total fresh weight of competitors nor the interaction term were significant. By contrast, for height and internode length, all effects, including the interaction, were significant. For these two variables, the interaction was due to the fact that for healthy plants, there is a positive relationship between the total fresh weight of competitors and the height or internode distance whereas this relationship does not exist for plants infected either by TEV or TuMV (figure 3). When looking at each focal plant independently, the regression between total competitor fresh weight and plant height is significant for healthy plants (P<0.001) but not for TEV-infected (P = 0.848) or TuMV-infected (P = 0.311) plants. In the same way, the regression between total competitor fresh weight and mean internode distance is significant for healthy plants (P = 0.003) but not for TEV-infected (P = 0.180) or TuMV-infected (P = 0.344) plants.

Bottom Line: Our results indicate that the modification of intraspecific competition by parasitism is not present in the Nicotiana benthamiana--potyvirus system and suggests that this phenomenon is not universal but depends on the peculiarities of each pathosystem.However, whereas the healthy N. benthamiana presented a clear shade avoidance syndrome, this phenotypic plasticity totally disappeared when the plants were infected with TEV and TuMV, very likely resulting in a fitness loss and being another form of indirect cost of parasitism.This result suggests that the suppression or the alteration of adaptive phenotypic plasticity might be a component of virulence that is often overlooked.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain. stebed@upvnet.upv.es

ABSTRACT
Competition and parasitism are two important selective forces that shape life-histories, migration rates and population dynamics. Recently, it has been shown in various pathosystems that parasites can modify intraspecific competition, thus generating an indirect cost of parasitism. Here, we investigated if this phenomenon was present in a plant-potyvirus system using two viruses of different virulence (Tobacco etch virus and Turnip mosaic virus). Moreover, we asked if parasitism interacted with the shade avoidance syndrome, the plant-specific phenotypic plasticity in response to intraspecific competition. Our results indicate that the modification of intraspecific competition by parasitism is not present in the Nicotiana benthamiana--potyvirus system and suggests that this phenomenon is not universal but depends on the peculiarities of each pathosystem. However, whereas the healthy N. benthamiana presented a clear shade avoidance syndrome, this phenotypic plasticity totally disappeared when the plants were infected with TEV and TuMV, very likely resulting in a fitness loss and being another form of indirect cost of parasitism. This result suggests that the suppression or the alteration of adaptive phenotypic plasticity might be a component of virulence that is often overlooked.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus