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Virus infection suppresses Nicotiana benthamiana adaptive phenotypic plasticity.

Bedhomme S, Elena SF - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: Our results indicate that the modification of intraspecific competition by parasitism is not present in the Nicotiana benthamiana--potyvirus system and suggests that this phenomenon is not universal but depends on the peculiarities of each pathosystem.However, whereas the healthy N. benthamiana presented a clear shade avoidance syndrome, this phenotypic plasticity totally disappeared when the plants were infected with TEV and TuMV, very likely resulting in a fitness loss and being another form of indirect cost of parasitism.This result suggests that the suppression or the alteration of adaptive phenotypic plasticity might be a component of virulence that is often overlooked.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain. stebed@upvnet.upv.es

ABSTRACT
Competition and parasitism are two important selective forces that shape life-histories, migration rates and population dynamics. Recently, it has been shown in various pathosystems that parasites can modify intraspecific competition, thus generating an indirect cost of parasitism. Here, we investigated if this phenomenon was present in a plant-potyvirus system using two viruses of different virulence (Tobacco etch virus and Turnip mosaic virus). Moreover, we asked if parasitism interacted with the shade avoidance syndrome, the plant-specific phenotypic plasticity in response to intraspecific competition. Our results indicate that the modification of intraspecific competition by parasitism is not present in the Nicotiana benthamiana--potyvirus system and suggests that this phenomenon is not universal but depends on the peculiarities of each pathosystem. However, whereas the healthy N. benthamiana presented a clear shade avoidance syndrome, this phenotypic plasticity totally disappeared when the plants were infected with TEV and TuMV, very likely resulting in a fitness loss and being another form of indirect cost of parasitism. This result suggests that the suppression or the alteration of adaptive phenotypic plasticity might be a component of virulence that is often overlooked.

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Symptoms of TEV and TuMV on N. benthamiana.Plants inoculated with TEV (6 plants on the left) or with TuMV (6 plants on the right) and healthy plants (2 plants in the center). The inoculation took place on four-weeks old plants and the picture was taken 10 dpi.
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pone-0017275-g001: Symptoms of TEV and TuMV on N. benthamiana.Plants inoculated with TEV (6 plants on the left) or with TuMV (6 plants on the right) and healthy plants (2 plants in the center). The inoculation took place on four-weeks old plants and the picture was taken 10 dpi.

Mentions: The present study has two goals: (i) investigate how the indirect cost of parasitism due to the modification of intraspecific competition is affected by the presence in the population of two phylogenetically related pathogens of different virulence and (ii) establish how the “shade avoidance syndrome” - the plant-specific adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to intraspecific competition - interplays with the effect of parasitism. For this, we used Nicotiana benthamiana as a host and Tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) and Turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV) as pathogens. Both viruses are ssRNA viruses from the Potyviridae family and have a moderately wide host range [16]. N. benthamiana is a host for the two viruses. In its hosts, TEV induces stunting and mottling, necrotic etching and malformation in leaves; the combination of these symptoms results in a decrease in host fitness [17]. TuMV induces mottling, mosaic, malformation in leaves and wilting. When inoculated at the same dose, TuMV induces stronger symptoms and a stronger reduction of the biomass than TEV (figure 1).


Virus infection suppresses Nicotiana benthamiana adaptive phenotypic plasticity.

Bedhomme S, Elena SF - PLoS ONE (2011)

Symptoms of TEV and TuMV on N. benthamiana.Plants inoculated with TEV (6 plants on the left) or with TuMV (6 plants on the right) and healthy plants (2 plants in the center). The inoculation took place on four-weeks old plants and the picture was taken 10 dpi.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3040767&req=5

pone-0017275-g001: Symptoms of TEV and TuMV on N. benthamiana.Plants inoculated with TEV (6 plants on the left) or with TuMV (6 plants on the right) and healthy plants (2 plants in the center). The inoculation took place on four-weeks old plants and the picture was taken 10 dpi.
Mentions: The present study has two goals: (i) investigate how the indirect cost of parasitism due to the modification of intraspecific competition is affected by the presence in the population of two phylogenetically related pathogens of different virulence and (ii) establish how the “shade avoidance syndrome” - the plant-specific adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to intraspecific competition - interplays with the effect of parasitism. For this, we used Nicotiana benthamiana as a host and Tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) and Turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV) as pathogens. Both viruses are ssRNA viruses from the Potyviridae family and have a moderately wide host range [16]. N. benthamiana is a host for the two viruses. In its hosts, TEV induces stunting and mottling, necrotic etching and malformation in leaves; the combination of these symptoms results in a decrease in host fitness [17]. TuMV induces mottling, mosaic, malformation in leaves and wilting. When inoculated at the same dose, TuMV induces stronger symptoms and a stronger reduction of the biomass than TEV (figure 1).

Bottom Line: Our results indicate that the modification of intraspecific competition by parasitism is not present in the Nicotiana benthamiana--potyvirus system and suggests that this phenomenon is not universal but depends on the peculiarities of each pathosystem.However, whereas the healthy N. benthamiana presented a clear shade avoidance syndrome, this phenotypic plasticity totally disappeared when the plants were infected with TEV and TuMV, very likely resulting in a fitness loss and being another form of indirect cost of parasitism.This result suggests that the suppression or the alteration of adaptive phenotypic plasticity might be a component of virulence that is often overlooked.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain. stebed@upvnet.upv.es

ABSTRACT
Competition and parasitism are two important selective forces that shape life-histories, migration rates and population dynamics. Recently, it has been shown in various pathosystems that parasites can modify intraspecific competition, thus generating an indirect cost of parasitism. Here, we investigated if this phenomenon was present in a plant-potyvirus system using two viruses of different virulence (Tobacco etch virus and Turnip mosaic virus). Moreover, we asked if parasitism interacted with the shade avoidance syndrome, the plant-specific phenotypic plasticity in response to intraspecific competition. Our results indicate that the modification of intraspecific competition by parasitism is not present in the Nicotiana benthamiana--potyvirus system and suggests that this phenomenon is not universal but depends on the peculiarities of each pathosystem. However, whereas the healthy N. benthamiana presented a clear shade avoidance syndrome, this phenotypic plasticity totally disappeared when the plants were infected with TEV and TuMV, very likely resulting in a fitness loss and being another form of indirect cost of parasitism. This result suggests that the suppression or the alteration of adaptive phenotypic plasticity might be a component of virulence that is often overlooked.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus