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Compounds from silicones alter enzyme activity in curing barnacle glue and model enzymes.

Rittschof D, Orihuela B, Harder T, Stafslien S, Chisholm B, Dickinson GH - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: Mixtures of compounds were found on 2 commercial and 8 model silicone coatings.Activity of purified trypsin and, to a greater extent, transglutaminase was significantly altered by relevant concentrations of silicone polymer constituents.Surface-associated silicone compounds can disrupt glue curing and alter enzyme properties.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MSC Division, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Nicholas School of the Environment, Beaufort, North Carolina, United States of America. ritt@duke.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Attachment strength of fouling organisms on silicone coatings is low. We hypothesized that low attachment strength on silicones is, in part, due to the interaction of surface available components with natural glues. Components could alter curing of glues through bulk changes or specifically through altered enzyme activity.

Methodology/principal findings: GC-MS analysis of silicone coatings showed surface-available siloxanes when the coatings were gently rubbed with a cotton swab for 15 seconds or given a 30 second rinse with methanol. Mixtures of compounds were found on 2 commercial and 8 model silicone coatings. The hypothesis that silicone components alter glue curing enzymes was tested with curing barnacle glue and with commercial enzymes. In our model, barnacle glue curing involves trypsin-like serine protease(s), which activate enzymes and structural proteins, and a transglutaminase which cross-links glue proteins. Transglutaminase activity was significantly altered upon exposure of curing glue from individual barnacles to silicone eluates. Activity of purified trypsin and, to a greater extent, transglutaminase was significantly altered by relevant concentrations of silicone polymer constituents.

Conclusions/significance: Surface-associated silicone compounds can disrupt glue curing and alter enzyme properties. Altered curing of natural glues has potential in fouling management.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of silicone rinses on barnacle glue trypsin activity.30 second, 60 µl methanol rinses were conducted, 10 rinses were pooled, dried completely, and residual was resuspended in 10 µl 100% methanol before adding assay buffer. Each individual barnacle was tested with all four silicones. Individual data, expressed as percent change in OD405 from control, and group mean (± SEM) are shown. The control is barnacle glue incubated with 10 µl 100% methanol and assay buffer only, without silicone residual.
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pone-0016487-g003: Effect of silicone rinses on barnacle glue trypsin activity.30 second, 60 µl methanol rinses were conducted, 10 rinses were pooled, dried completely, and residual was resuspended in 10 µl 100% methanol before adding assay buffer. Each individual barnacle was tested with all four silicones. Individual data, expressed as percent change in OD405 from control, and group mean (± SEM) are shown. The control is barnacle glue incubated with 10 µl 100% methanol and assay buffer only, without silicone residual.

Mentions: The effect of the residue of silicone rinses on barnacle glue trypsin and transglutaminase activity is shown in Figures 3 and 4. The impact of residues was dependent on the source of curing glue. HPLC grade methanol control assays showed that neither trypsin nor transglutaminase activity varied significantly in glue assays with methanol versus glue assays with deionized water substituted for methanol (paired t-tests: trypsin: p = 0.162, n = 7 barnacles; transglutaminase: p = 0.161, n = 8 barnacles).


Compounds from silicones alter enzyme activity in curing barnacle glue and model enzymes.

Rittschof D, Orihuela B, Harder T, Stafslien S, Chisholm B, Dickinson GH - PLoS ONE (2011)

Effect of silicone rinses on barnacle glue trypsin activity.30 second, 60 µl methanol rinses were conducted, 10 rinses were pooled, dried completely, and residual was resuspended in 10 µl 100% methanol before adding assay buffer. Each individual barnacle was tested with all four silicones. Individual data, expressed as percent change in OD405 from control, and group mean (± SEM) are shown. The control is barnacle glue incubated with 10 µl 100% methanol and assay buffer only, without silicone residual.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3040736&req=5

pone-0016487-g003: Effect of silicone rinses on barnacle glue trypsin activity.30 second, 60 µl methanol rinses were conducted, 10 rinses were pooled, dried completely, and residual was resuspended in 10 µl 100% methanol before adding assay buffer. Each individual barnacle was tested with all four silicones. Individual data, expressed as percent change in OD405 from control, and group mean (± SEM) are shown. The control is barnacle glue incubated with 10 µl 100% methanol and assay buffer only, without silicone residual.
Mentions: The effect of the residue of silicone rinses on barnacle glue trypsin and transglutaminase activity is shown in Figures 3 and 4. The impact of residues was dependent on the source of curing glue. HPLC grade methanol control assays showed that neither trypsin nor transglutaminase activity varied significantly in glue assays with methanol versus glue assays with deionized water substituted for methanol (paired t-tests: trypsin: p = 0.162, n = 7 barnacles; transglutaminase: p = 0.161, n = 8 barnacles).

Bottom Line: Mixtures of compounds were found on 2 commercial and 8 model silicone coatings.Activity of purified trypsin and, to a greater extent, transglutaminase was significantly altered by relevant concentrations of silicone polymer constituents.Surface-associated silicone compounds can disrupt glue curing and alter enzyme properties.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MSC Division, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Nicholas School of the Environment, Beaufort, North Carolina, United States of America. ritt@duke.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Attachment strength of fouling organisms on silicone coatings is low. We hypothesized that low attachment strength on silicones is, in part, due to the interaction of surface available components with natural glues. Components could alter curing of glues through bulk changes or specifically through altered enzyme activity.

Methodology/principal findings: GC-MS analysis of silicone coatings showed surface-available siloxanes when the coatings were gently rubbed with a cotton swab for 15 seconds or given a 30 second rinse with methanol. Mixtures of compounds were found on 2 commercial and 8 model silicone coatings. The hypothesis that silicone components alter glue curing enzymes was tested with curing barnacle glue and with commercial enzymes. In our model, barnacle glue curing involves trypsin-like serine protease(s), which activate enzymes and structural proteins, and a transglutaminase which cross-links glue proteins. Transglutaminase activity was significantly altered upon exposure of curing glue from individual barnacles to silicone eluates. Activity of purified trypsin and, to a greater extent, transglutaminase was significantly altered by relevant concentrations of silicone polymer constituents.

Conclusions/significance: Surface-associated silicone compounds can disrupt glue curing and alter enzyme properties. Altered curing of natural glues has potential in fouling management.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus