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Fine-tuning the space, time, and host distribution of mycobacteria in wildlife.

Gortazar C, Torres MJ, Acevedo P, Aznar J, Negro JJ, de la Fuente J, Vicente J - BMC Microbiol. (2011)

Bottom Line: While only three TPs were detected in wildlife between 1998 and 2003, up to 8 different ones were found during 2006-2007.M. bovis TPs were usually found closer to water marshland than MOTT.This research highlights the suitability of molecular typing for surveys at small spatial and temporal scales.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: IREC National Wildlife Research Institute (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: We describe the diversity of two kinds of mycobacteria isolates, environmental mycobacteria and Mycobacterium bovis collected from wild boar, fallow deer, red deer and cattle in Doñana National Park (DNP, Spain), analyzing their association with temporal, spatial and environmental factors.

Results: High diversity of environmental mycobacteria species and M. bovis typing patterns (TPs) were found. When assessing the factors underlying the presence of the most common types of both environmental mycobacteria and M. bovis TPs in DNP, we evidenced (i) host species differences in the occurrence, (ii) spatial structuration and (iii) differences in the degree of spatial association of specific types between host species. Co-infection of a single host by two M. bovis TPs occurred in all three wild ungulate species. In wild boar and red deer, isolation of one group of mycobacteria occurred more frequently in individuals not infected by the other group. While only three TPs were detected in wildlife between 1998 and 2003, up to 8 different ones were found during 2006-2007. The opposite was observed in cattle. Belonging to an M. bovis-infected social group was a significant risk factor for mycobacterial infection in red deer and wild boar, but not for fallow deer. M. bovis TPs were usually found closer to water marshland than MOTT.

Conclusions: The diversity of mycobacteria described herein is indicative of multiple introduction events and a complex multi-host and multi-pathogen epidemiology in DNP. Significant changes in the mycobacterial isolate community may have taken place, even in a short time period (1998 to 2007). Aspects of host social organization should be taken into account in wildlife epidemiology. Wildlife in DNP is frequently exposed to different species of non-tuberculous, environmental mycobacteria, which could interact with the immune response to pathogenic mycobacteria, although the effects are unknown. This research highlights the suitability of molecular typing for surveys at small spatial and temporal scales.

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Spatial structure of M. bovis isolate typing patterns (TPs) from wild ungulates in Doñana National Park, Spain. A North (CR) South (MA) gradient in type A1 and an inverse one in type B2 are evident.
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Figure 6: Spatial structure of M. bovis isolate typing patterns (TPs) from wild ungulates in Doñana National Park, Spain. A North (CR) South (MA) gradient in type A1 and an inverse one in type B2 are evident.

Mentions: Table 5 shows the Czechanovsky similarities between the mycobacteria isolates in different sites and host species in DNP. For example, in column and row 1 from Table 5, the similarity indices of the CR mycobacterial community (in the north of DNP) decrease towards the south of the Park (MA; 20%; see also Figure 6). The highest similarity indices were observed between neighboring sites such as between EB and PU (89%) and MA and PU (75%). All hosts had their highest similarities with mycobacterial communities from the central sites of DNP.


Fine-tuning the space, time, and host distribution of mycobacteria in wildlife.

Gortazar C, Torres MJ, Acevedo P, Aznar J, Negro JJ, de la Fuente J, Vicente J - BMC Microbiol. (2011)

Spatial structure of M. bovis isolate typing patterns (TPs) from wild ungulates in Doñana National Park, Spain. A North (CR) South (MA) gradient in type A1 and an inverse one in type B2 are evident.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3040691&req=5

Figure 6: Spatial structure of M. bovis isolate typing patterns (TPs) from wild ungulates in Doñana National Park, Spain. A North (CR) South (MA) gradient in type A1 and an inverse one in type B2 are evident.
Mentions: Table 5 shows the Czechanovsky similarities between the mycobacteria isolates in different sites and host species in DNP. For example, in column and row 1 from Table 5, the similarity indices of the CR mycobacterial community (in the north of DNP) decrease towards the south of the Park (MA; 20%; see also Figure 6). The highest similarity indices were observed between neighboring sites such as between EB and PU (89%) and MA and PU (75%). All hosts had their highest similarities with mycobacterial communities from the central sites of DNP.

Bottom Line: While only three TPs were detected in wildlife between 1998 and 2003, up to 8 different ones were found during 2006-2007.M. bovis TPs were usually found closer to water marshland than MOTT.This research highlights the suitability of molecular typing for surveys at small spatial and temporal scales.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: IREC National Wildlife Research Institute (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: We describe the diversity of two kinds of mycobacteria isolates, environmental mycobacteria and Mycobacterium bovis collected from wild boar, fallow deer, red deer and cattle in Doñana National Park (DNP, Spain), analyzing their association with temporal, spatial and environmental factors.

Results: High diversity of environmental mycobacteria species and M. bovis typing patterns (TPs) were found. When assessing the factors underlying the presence of the most common types of both environmental mycobacteria and M. bovis TPs in DNP, we evidenced (i) host species differences in the occurrence, (ii) spatial structuration and (iii) differences in the degree of spatial association of specific types between host species. Co-infection of a single host by two M. bovis TPs occurred in all three wild ungulate species. In wild boar and red deer, isolation of one group of mycobacteria occurred more frequently in individuals not infected by the other group. While only three TPs were detected in wildlife between 1998 and 2003, up to 8 different ones were found during 2006-2007. The opposite was observed in cattle. Belonging to an M. bovis-infected social group was a significant risk factor for mycobacterial infection in red deer and wild boar, but not for fallow deer. M. bovis TPs were usually found closer to water marshland than MOTT.

Conclusions: The diversity of mycobacteria described herein is indicative of multiple introduction events and a complex multi-host and multi-pathogen epidemiology in DNP. Significant changes in the mycobacterial isolate community may have taken place, even in a short time period (1998 to 2007). Aspects of host social organization should be taken into account in wildlife epidemiology. Wildlife in DNP is frequently exposed to different species of non-tuberculous, environmental mycobacteria, which could interact with the immune response to pathogenic mycobacteria, although the effects are unknown. This research highlights the suitability of molecular typing for surveys at small spatial and temporal scales.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus