Limits...
Fine-tuning the space, time, and host distribution of mycobacteria in wildlife.

Gortazar C, Torres MJ, Acevedo P, Aznar J, Negro JJ, de la Fuente J, Vicente J - BMC Microbiol. (2011)

Bottom Line: While only three TPs were detected in wildlife between 1998 and 2003, up to 8 different ones were found during 2006-2007.M. bovis TPs were usually found closer to water marshland than MOTT.This research highlights the suitability of molecular typing for surveys at small spatial and temporal scales.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: IREC National Wildlife Research Institute (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: We describe the diversity of two kinds of mycobacteria isolates, environmental mycobacteria and Mycobacterium bovis collected from wild boar, fallow deer, red deer and cattle in Doñana National Park (DNP, Spain), analyzing their association with temporal, spatial and environmental factors.

Results: High diversity of environmental mycobacteria species and M. bovis typing patterns (TPs) were found. When assessing the factors underlying the presence of the most common types of both environmental mycobacteria and M. bovis TPs in DNP, we evidenced (i) host species differences in the occurrence, (ii) spatial structuration and (iii) differences in the degree of spatial association of specific types between host species. Co-infection of a single host by two M. bovis TPs occurred in all three wild ungulate species. In wild boar and red deer, isolation of one group of mycobacteria occurred more frequently in individuals not infected by the other group. While only three TPs were detected in wildlife between 1998 and 2003, up to 8 different ones were found during 2006-2007. The opposite was observed in cattle. Belonging to an M. bovis-infected social group was a significant risk factor for mycobacterial infection in red deer and wild boar, but not for fallow deer. M. bovis TPs were usually found closer to water marshland than MOTT.

Conclusions: The diversity of mycobacteria described herein is indicative of multiple introduction events and a complex multi-host and multi-pathogen epidemiology in DNP. Significant changes in the mycobacterial isolate community may have taken place, even in a short time period (1998 to 2007). Aspects of host social organization should be taken into account in wildlife epidemiology. Wildlife in DNP is frequently exposed to different species of non-tuberculous, environmental mycobacteria, which could interact with the immune response to pathogenic mycobacteria, although the effects are unknown. This research highlights the suitability of molecular typing for surveys at small spatial and temporal scales.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Mycobacteria Other Than Tuberculosis (MOTT) isolates by host and site in Doñana National Park, Spain (A Mycobacterium scrofulaceum; B M. interjectum; C M. xenopi; D M. intracellulare). The solid line indicates the park limit and the dashed line the marshland (dark area) waterline. Symbols show sampling locations for wild boar (squares), fallow deer (circles) and red deer (triangles).
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Figure 5: Mycobacteria Other Than Tuberculosis (MOTT) isolates by host and site in Doñana National Park, Spain (A Mycobacterium scrofulaceum; B M. interjectum; C M. xenopi; D M. intracellulare). The solid line indicates the park limit and the dashed line the marshland (dark area) waterline. Symbols show sampling locations for wild boar (squares), fallow deer (circles) and red deer (triangles).

Mentions: Regarding the MOTT (Table 1, Figures 4 and 5), M. interjectum was only found in wild boar from EB, in the central part of DNP. In contrast, M. scrofulaceum was found in all three wildlife hosts (but not in cattle) in CR (2 isolates), SO (18), EB (5), and PU (3). The only MOTT found in cattle (one M. intracellulare isolate) was isolated from a cow raised in PU. M. intracellulare was often isolated from wild boar in PU and EB, and also from one fallow deer in EB and two red deer in SO and MA, respectively.


Fine-tuning the space, time, and host distribution of mycobacteria in wildlife.

Gortazar C, Torres MJ, Acevedo P, Aznar J, Negro JJ, de la Fuente J, Vicente J - BMC Microbiol. (2011)

Mycobacteria Other Than Tuberculosis (MOTT) isolates by host and site in Doñana National Park, Spain (A Mycobacterium scrofulaceum; B M. interjectum; C M. xenopi; D M. intracellulare). The solid line indicates the park limit and the dashed line the marshland (dark area) waterline. Symbols show sampling locations for wild boar (squares), fallow deer (circles) and red deer (triangles).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3040691&req=5

Figure 5: Mycobacteria Other Than Tuberculosis (MOTT) isolates by host and site in Doñana National Park, Spain (A Mycobacterium scrofulaceum; B M. interjectum; C M. xenopi; D M. intracellulare). The solid line indicates the park limit and the dashed line the marshland (dark area) waterline. Symbols show sampling locations for wild boar (squares), fallow deer (circles) and red deer (triangles).
Mentions: Regarding the MOTT (Table 1, Figures 4 and 5), M. interjectum was only found in wild boar from EB, in the central part of DNP. In contrast, M. scrofulaceum was found in all three wildlife hosts (but not in cattle) in CR (2 isolates), SO (18), EB (5), and PU (3). The only MOTT found in cattle (one M. intracellulare isolate) was isolated from a cow raised in PU. M. intracellulare was often isolated from wild boar in PU and EB, and also from one fallow deer in EB and two red deer in SO and MA, respectively.

Bottom Line: While only three TPs were detected in wildlife between 1998 and 2003, up to 8 different ones were found during 2006-2007.M. bovis TPs were usually found closer to water marshland than MOTT.This research highlights the suitability of molecular typing for surveys at small spatial and temporal scales.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: IREC National Wildlife Research Institute (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: We describe the diversity of two kinds of mycobacteria isolates, environmental mycobacteria and Mycobacterium bovis collected from wild boar, fallow deer, red deer and cattle in Doñana National Park (DNP, Spain), analyzing their association with temporal, spatial and environmental factors.

Results: High diversity of environmental mycobacteria species and M. bovis typing patterns (TPs) were found. When assessing the factors underlying the presence of the most common types of both environmental mycobacteria and M. bovis TPs in DNP, we evidenced (i) host species differences in the occurrence, (ii) spatial structuration and (iii) differences in the degree of spatial association of specific types between host species. Co-infection of a single host by two M. bovis TPs occurred in all three wild ungulate species. In wild boar and red deer, isolation of one group of mycobacteria occurred more frequently in individuals not infected by the other group. While only three TPs were detected in wildlife between 1998 and 2003, up to 8 different ones were found during 2006-2007. The opposite was observed in cattle. Belonging to an M. bovis-infected social group was a significant risk factor for mycobacterial infection in red deer and wild boar, but not for fallow deer. M. bovis TPs were usually found closer to water marshland than MOTT.

Conclusions: The diversity of mycobacteria described herein is indicative of multiple introduction events and a complex multi-host and multi-pathogen epidemiology in DNP. Significant changes in the mycobacterial isolate community may have taken place, even in a short time period (1998 to 2007). Aspects of host social organization should be taken into account in wildlife epidemiology. Wildlife in DNP is frequently exposed to different species of non-tuberculous, environmental mycobacteria, which could interact with the immune response to pathogenic mycobacteria, although the effects are unknown. This research highlights the suitability of molecular typing for surveys at small spatial and temporal scales.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus