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Fine-tuning the space, time, and host distribution of mycobacteria in wildlife.

Gortazar C, Torres MJ, Acevedo P, Aznar J, Negro JJ, de la Fuente J, Vicente J - BMC Microbiol. (2011)

Bottom Line: While only three TPs were detected in wildlife between 1998 and 2003, up to 8 different ones were found during 2006-2007.M. bovis TPs were usually found closer to water marshland than MOTT.This research highlights the suitability of molecular typing for surveys at small spatial and temporal scales.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: IREC National Wildlife Research Institute (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: We describe the diversity of two kinds of mycobacteria isolates, environmental mycobacteria and Mycobacterium bovis collected from wild boar, fallow deer, red deer and cattle in Doñana National Park (DNP, Spain), analyzing their association with temporal, spatial and environmental factors.

Results: High diversity of environmental mycobacteria species and M. bovis typing patterns (TPs) were found. When assessing the factors underlying the presence of the most common types of both environmental mycobacteria and M. bovis TPs in DNP, we evidenced (i) host species differences in the occurrence, (ii) spatial structuration and (iii) differences in the degree of spatial association of specific types between host species. Co-infection of a single host by two M. bovis TPs occurred in all three wild ungulate species. In wild boar and red deer, isolation of one group of mycobacteria occurred more frequently in individuals not infected by the other group. While only three TPs were detected in wildlife between 1998 and 2003, up to 8 different ones were found during 2006-2007. The opposite was observed in cattle. Belonging to an M. bovis-infected social group was a significant risk factor for mycobacterial infection in red deer and wild boar, but not for fallow deer. M. bovis TPs were usually found closer to water marshland than MOTT.

Conclusions: The diversity of mycobacteria described herein is indicative of multiple introduction events and a complex multi-host and multi-pathogen epidemiology in DNP. Significant changes in the mycobacterial isolate community may have taken place, even in a short time period (1998 to 2007). Aspects of host social organization should be taken into account in wildlife epidemiology. Wildlife in DNP is frequently exposed to different species of non-tuberculous, environmental mycobacteria, which could interact with the immune response to pathogenic mycobacteria, although the effects are unknown. This research highlights the suitability of molecular typing for surveys at small spatial and temporal scales.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Doñana National Park, Spain. Park boundary is marked by a solid line. From north to south: CR Coto del Rey; SO Los Sotos; EB Estación Biológica; PU El Puntal; MA Marismillas. Shadowed areas are marshlands used as cattle pastures (Marisma de Hinojos and Las Nuevas). Symbols show sampling sites for wild boar (squares), fallow deer (circles) and red deer (triangles).
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Figure 1: Doñana National Park, Spain. Park boundary is marked by a solid line. From north to south: CR Coto del Rey; SO Los Sotos; EB Estación Biológica; PU El Puntal; MA Marismillas. Shadowed areas are marshlands used as cattle pastures (Marisma de Hinojos and Las Nuevas). Symbols show sampling sites for wild boar (squares), fallow deer (circles) and red deer (triangles).

Mentions: From April 2006 to April 2007, 124 European wild boar, 95 red deer, and 100 fallow deer were sampled within the park by shooting. The culling of wild ungulates was approved by the Research Commission of Doñana National Park in accordance with management rules established by the Autonomous Government of Andalucía. For each animal we recorded the exact position with GPS. Sex and age, based on tooth eruption patterns (animals less than 12 months old were classified as juveniles, those between 12 and 24 months as yearlings, and those more than 2 years old as adults; [38]), were recorded in the field. A necropsy was performed on site and the presence of tuberculosis-like lesions recorded by macroscopic inspection of lymph nodes and abdominal and thoracic organs [6]. This protocol included the examination of the lungs for the presence of TB-compatible macroscopic lesions during field inspection and a sample was collected. A tonsil and a head lymph node sample from each individual were collected for culture (Figure 1; Table 1). In wild boar, one piece of the tonsils and one from both mandibular lymph nodes were submitted for microbiological studies. In red deer and fallow deer, one piece of the tonsils and head lymphnode samples, always containing at least half left and half right medial retropharyngeal lymph node, were submitted for culture. Due to logistic and budget constraints, no thoracic or abdominal lymphoid tissues were cultured except when TB-compatible macroscopic lesions were evidenced.


Fine-tuning the space, time, and host distribution of mycobacteria in wildlife.

Gortazar C, Torres MJ, Acevedo P, Aznar J, Negro JJ, de la Fuente J, Vicente J - BMC Microbiol. (2011)

Doñana National Park, Spain. Park boundary is marked by a solid line. From north to south: CR Coto del Rey; SO Los Sotos; EB Estación Biológica; PU El Puntal; MA Marismillas. Shadowed areas are marshlands used as cattle pastures (Marisma de Hinojos and Las Nuevas). Symbols show sampling sites for wild boar (squares), fallow deer (circles) and red deer (triangles).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3040691&req=5

Figure 1: Doñana National Park, Spain. Park boundary is marked by a solid line. From north to south: CR Coto del Rey; SO Los Sotos; EB Estación Biológica; PU El Puntal; MA Marismillas. Shadowed areas are marshlands used as cattle pastures (Marisma de Hinojos and Las Nuevas). Symbols show sampling sites for wild boar (squares), fallow deer (circles) and red deer (triangles).
Mentions: From April 2006 to April 2007, 124 European wild boar, 95 red deer, and 100 fallow deer were sampled within the park by shooting. The culling of wild ungulates was approved by the Research Commission of Doñana National Park in accordance with management rules established by the Autonomous Government of Andalucía. For each animal we recorded the exact position with GPS. Sex and age, based on tooth eruption patterns (animals less than 12 months old were classified as juveniles, those between 12 and 24 months as yearlings, and those more than 2 years old as adults; [38]), were recorded in the field. A necropsy was performed on site and the presence of tuberculosis-like lesions recorded by macroscopic inspection of lymph nodes and abdominal and thoracic organs [6]. This protocol included the examination of the lungs for the presence of TB-compatible macroscopic lesions during field inspection and a sample was collected. A tonsil and a head lymph node sample from each individual were collected for culture (Figure 1; Table 1). In wild boar, one piece of the tonsils and one from both mandibular lymph nodes were submitted for microbiological studies. In red deer and fallow deer, one piece of the tonsils and head lymphnode samples, always containing at least half left and half right medial retropharyngeal lymph node, were submitted for culture. Due to logistic and budget constraints, no thoracic or abdominal lymphoid tissues were cultured except when TB-compatible macroscopic lesions were evidenced.

Bottom Line: While only three TPs were detected in wildlife between 1998 and 2003, up to 8 different ones were found during 2006-2007.M. bovis TPs were usually found closer to water marshland than MOTT.This research highlights the suitability of molecular typing for surveys at small spatial and temporal scales.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: IREC National Wildlife Research Institute (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain.

ABSTRACT

Background: We describe the diversity of two kinds of mycobacteria isolates, environmental mycobacteria and Mycobacterium bovis collected from wild boar, fallow deer, red deer and cattle in Doñana National Park (DNP, Spain), analyzing their association with temporal, spatial and environmental factors.

Results: High diversity of environmental mycobacteria species and M. bovis typing patterns (TPs) were found. When assessing the factors underlying the presence of the most common types of both environmental mycobacteria and M. bovis TPs in DNP, we evidenced (i) host species differences in the occurrence, (ii) spatial structuration and (iii) differences in the degree of spatial association of specific types between host species. Co-infection of a single host by two M. bovis TPs occurred in all three wild ungulate species. In wild boar and red deer, isolation of one group of mycobacteria occurred more frequently in individuals not infected by the other group. While only three TPs were detected in wildlife between 1998 and 2003, up to 8 different ones were found during 2006-2007. The opposite was observed in cattle. Belonging to an M. bovis-infected social group was a significant risk factor for mycobacterial infection in red deer and wild boar, but not for fallow deer. M. bovis TPs were usually found closer to water marshland than MOTT.

Conclusions: The diversity of mycobacteria described herein is indicative of multiple introduction events and a complex multi-host and multi-pathogen epidemiology in DNP. Significant changes in the mycobacterial isolate community may have taken place, even in a short time period (1998 to 2007). Aspects of host social organization should be taken into account in wildlife epidemiology. Wildlife in DNP is frequently exposed to different species of non-tuberculous, environmental mycobacteria, which could interact with the immune response to pathogenic mycobacteria, although the effects are unknown. This research highlights the suitability of molecular typing for surveys at small spatial and temporal scales.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus