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New models of microsporidiosis: infections in Zebrafish, C. elegans, and honey bee.

Troemel ER - PLoS Pathog. (2011)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA. etroemel@ucsd.edu

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In this review we will consider the interaction between microsporidia and their hosts, with a focus on three non-mammalian hosts: zebrafish, Caenorhabditis elegans, and honey bee (Figure 1)... This tube is coiled inside the spore and then “fires” outside the spore to directly inject the parasite into host cells, although the exact details of this process are poorly understood in vivo... A variety of cues have been shown to induce polar tube firing in vitro, but no cue has been found that is universal... As is often the case in fish microsporidia infections, P. neurophilia form complexes called xenomas, which are essentially spore factories that generate vast quantities of spores... P. neurophilia xenomas are found in the nervous system, such as the hind brain, spinal cord, nerve roots, and occasionally in muscle (Figure 1)... However, most studies in the field of C. elegans pathogenesis have involved clinically relevant human pathogens that were not known to be natural pathogens of this animal... In a search for natural pathogens of C. elegans, a new genus and species of microsporidia was found in a wild-caught strain of C. elegans isolated from a compost pit near Paris... In any case, there has been an active search for pathogens that could be responsible for CCD... The microsporidian species Nosema apis has long been known to afflict Western honey bee colonies, and in recent years, a new species of microsporidia called Nosema ceranae has increasingly been found in Western honey bee colonies around the world... Study of N. ceranae has been an active area of interest as a possible cause of CCD... Some reports have indicated that N. ceranae is more pathogenic to honey bees than N. apis and could be a cause of CCD, although other studies have not found a difference in pathogenicity between the two species... For this reason, the transparent hosts C. elegans and zebrafish provide excellent systems for analysis of microsporidia development, since infections can be visualized inside living, intact animals... C. elegans and zebrafish provide advantages over other hosts like mammals and insects, which require dissection to analyze infection, even for standard microscopy studies... Individual C. elegans and zebrafish animals can repeatedly be analyzed microscopically throughout infection, making it possible to track the kinetics of parasite development inside these transparent and hardy hosts... In addition, C. elegans and zebrafish provide powerful genetic tools that allow for unbiased identification of host proteins involved in microsporidia infection through forward genetic screens.

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Three new systems for study of infection by microsporidia.Zebrafish, C. elegans, and honey bee are infected by distinct species of microsporidia. Site of infection is highlighted in green for each host. Transmission in each system likely occurs via a fecal-oral route and the host is infected by ingesting infectious spores. Diagram by Malina Bakowski.
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ppat-1001243-g001: Three new systems for study of infection by microsporidia.Zebrafish, C. elegans, and honey bee are infected by distinct species of microsporidia. Site of infection is highlighted in green for each host. Transmission in each system likely occurs via a fecal-oral route and the host is infected by ingesting infectious spores. Diagram by Malina Bakowski.

Mentions: Microsporidia comprise a large phylum of fungal-related pathogens that have been studied since the time of Louis Pasteur, who in 1870 found that they were responsible for silkworm disease that was decimating the silkworm industry [1], [2]. These obligate intracellular microbes are ubiquitous, but have remained enigmatic because of the difficulties of culturing them in the lab. In the 1990s there was a surge of interest in microsporidia when it was found that they were responsible for severe diarrhea and death in AIDS patients, but most research on these parasites has been conducted in fish and insects [3]. A recent PLoS Pathogens Pearl focused on the phylogenetic placement of microsporidia and the compactness of their genomes [4]. In this review we will consider the interaction between microsporidia and their hosts, with a focus on three non-mammalian hosts: zebrafish, Caenorhabditis elegans, and honey bee (Figure 1). These hosts are relatively new systems for the study of microsporidia, with distinct reasons motivating interest in each of them as described below. These systems provide exciting new opportunities to obtain insights into the mechanisms of microsporidia pathogenesis.


New models of microsporidiosis: infections in Zebrafish, C. elegans, and honey bee.

Troemel ER - PLoS Pathog. (2011)

Three new systems for study of infection by microsporidia.Zebrafish, C. elegans, and honey bee are infected by distinct species of microsporidia. Site of infection is highlighted in green for each host. Transmission in each system likely occurs via a fecal-oral route and the host is infected by ingesting infectious spores. Diagram by Malina Bakowski.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3040677&req=5

ppat-1001243-g001: Three new systems for study of infection by microsporidia.Zebrafish, C. elegans, and honey bee are infected by distinct species of microsporidia. Site of infection is highlighted in green for each host. Transmission in each system likely occurs via a fecal-oral route and the host is infected by ingesting infectious spores. Diagram by Malina Bakowski.
Mentions: Microsporidia comprise a large phylum of fungal-related pathogens that have been studied since the time of Louis Pasteur, who in 1870 found that they were responsible for silkworm disease that was decimating the silkworm industry [1], [2]. These obligate intracellular microbes are ubiquitous, but have remained enigmatic because of the difficulties of culturing them in the lab. In the 1990s there was a surge of interest in microsporidia when it was found that they were responsible for severe diarrhea and death in AIDS patients, but most research on these parasites has been conducted in fish and insects [3]. A recent PLoS Pathogens Pearl focused on the phylogenetic placement of microsporidia and the compactness of their genomes [4]. In this review we will consider the interaction between microsporidia and their hosts, with a focus on three non-mammalian hosts: zebrafish, Caenorhabditis elegans, and honey bee (Figure 1). These hosts are relatively new systems for the study of microsporidia, with distinct reasons motivating interest in each of them as described below. These systems provide exciting new opportunities to obtain insights into the mechanisms of microsporidia pathogenesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA. etroemel@ucsd.edu

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

In this review we will consider the interaction between microsporidia and their hosts, with a focus on three non-mammalian hosts: zebrafish, Caenorhabditis elegans, and honey bee (Figure 1)... This tube is coiled inside the spore and then “fires” outside the spore to directly inject the parasite into host cells, although the exact details of this process are poorly understood in vivo... A variety of cues have been shown to induce polar tube firing in vitro, but no cue has been found that is universal... As is often the case in fish microsporidia infections, P. neurophilia form complexes called xenomas, which are essentially spore factories that generate vast quantities of spores... P. neurophilia xenomas are found in the nervous system, such as the hind brain, spinal cord, nerve roots, and occasionally in muscle (Figure 1)... However, most studies in the field of C. elegans pathogenesis have involved clinically relevant human pathogens that were not known to be natural pathogens of this animal... In a search for natural pathogens of C. elegans, a new genus and species of microsporidia was found in a wild-caught strain of C. elegans isolated from a compost pit near Paris... In any case, there has been an active search for pathogens that could be responsible for CCD... The microsporidian species Nosema apis has long been known to afflict Western honey bee colonies, and in recent years, a new species of microsporidia called Nosema ceranae has increasingly been found in Western honey bee colonies around the world... Study of N. ceranae has been an active area of interest as a possible cause of CCD... Some reports have indicated that N. ceranae is more pathogenic to honey bees than N. apis and could be a cause of CCD, although other studies have not found a difference in pathogenicity between the two species... For this reason, the transparent hosts C. elegans and zebrafish provide excellent systems for analysis of microsporidia development, since infections can be visualized inside living, intact animals... C. elegans and zebrafish provide advantages over other hosts like mammals and insects, which require dissection to analyze infection, even for standard microscopy studies... Individual C. elegans and zebrafish animals can repeatedly be analyzed microscopically throughout infection, making it possible to track the kinetics of parasite development inside these transparent and hardy hosts... In addition, C. elegans and zebrafish provide powerful genetic tools that allow for unbiased identification of host proteins involved in microsporidia infection through forward genetic screens.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus