Limits...
Pyramidal cells in prefrontal cortex of primates: marked differences in neuronal structure among species.

Elston GN, Benavides-Piccione R, Elston A, Manger PR, Defelipe J - Front Neuroanat (2011)

Bottom Line: Here we undertook a survey of pyramidal cells in the dorsolateral, medial, and orbital gPFC of cercopithecid primates.We found marked heterogeneity in pyramidal cell structure within and between these regions.Moreover, trends for gradients in neuronal complexity varied among species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience Sunshine Coast, QLD, Australia.

ABSTRACT
The most ubiquitous neuron in the cerebral cortex, the pyramidal cell, is characterized by markedly different dendritic structure among different cortical areas. The complex pyramidal cell phenotype in granular prefrontal cortex (gPFC) of higher primates endows specific biophysical properties and patterns of connectivity, which differ from those in other cortical regions. However, within the gPFC, data have been sampled from only a select few cortical areas. The gPFC of species such as human and macaque monkey includes more than 10 cortical areas. It remains unknown as to what degree pyramidal cell structure may vary among these cortical areas. Here we undertook a survey of pyramidal cells in the dorsolateral, medial, and orbital gPFC of cercopithecid primates. We found marked heterogeneity in pyramidal cell structure within and between these regions. Moreover, trends for gradients in neuronal complexity varied among species. As the structure of neurons determines their computational abilities, memory storage capacity and connectivity, we propose that these specializations in the pyramidal cell phenotype are an important determinant of species-specific executive cortical functions in primates.

No MeSH data available.


Plots of our estimates of the total number of dendritic spines in the basal dendritic tree of the “average” layer III pyramidal cell in visual, somatosensory, motor, limbic, and prefrontal cortex of the vervet monkey. Sampling from the same cortical regions in the two animals (stylized at top right) resulted in remarkably similar trends in these estimates in visual, somatosensory, motor, and limbic cortex of both animals (top right). In granular prefrontal cortex (gPFC), however, we found unprecedented differences in our estimates of the total number of dendritic spines in the basal dendritic tree of the “average” layer III pyramidal cell among cortical areas (bottom left), despite standardizing the regions sampled between cases (bottom right). V1 = primary visual, V2 = second visual, V4 = fourth visual, 3b = primary somatosensory, 1/2/5/7 = somatosensory association, 4 = primary motor, 6 = premotor, 23 = posterior cingulate, 24 = anterior cingulate, 9/10/12/13/46 = prefrontal areas, 32 = cingulate.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3039119&req=5

Figure 7: Plots of our estimates of the total number of dendritic spines in the basal dendritic tree of the “average” layer III pyramidal cell in visual, somatosensory, motor, limbic, and prefrontal cortex of the vervet monkey. Sampling from the same cortical regions in the two animals (stylized at top right) resulted in remarkably similar trends in these estimates in visual, somatosensory, motor, and limbic cortex of both animals (top right). In granular prefrontal cortex (gPFC), however, we found unprecedented differences in our estimates of the total number of dendritic spines in the basal dendritic tree of the “average” layer III pyramidal cell among cortical areas (bottom left), despite standardizing the regions sampled between cases (bottom right). V1 = primary visual, V2 = second visual, V4 = fourth visual, 3b = primary somatosensory, 1/2/5/7 = somatosensory association, 4 = primary motor, 6 = premotor, 23 = posterior cingulate, 24 = anterior cingulate, 9/10/12/13/46 = prefrontal areas, 32 = cingulate.

Mentions: The mean and standard deviation in spine density per 10 μm (as a function of distance from the soma to the distal tips of 10 randomly selected horizontally projecting basal dendrites of different cells in each cortical area) are plotted in Figure 5C. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the distribution of spines along the dendrites cells between cortical areas in both VM1 (F(1,4) = 4.23) and VM2 (F(1,4) = 7.53). Post hoc Scheffe tests revealed that spine density in area 32 was significantly different to that in areas 9d and 9m in VM1 and area 10 in VM2. None of the six possible pair-wise comparisons between prefrontal areas were significantly different in VM1. Three of the six pair-wise comparisons between prefrontal areas were significantly different in VM2 (Table 6). There was a >50% difference in our estimates of the total number of dendritic spines in the basal dendritic arbor of the “average” pyramidal neuron in areas of the gPFC (Figure 7; Table 7).


Pyramidal cells in prefrontal cortex of primates: marked differences in neuronal structure among species.

Elston GN, Benavides-Piccione R, Elston A, Manger PR, Defelipe J - Front Neuroanat (2011)

Plots of our estimates of the total number of dendritic spines in the basal dendritic tree of the “average” layer III pyramidal cell in visual, somatosensory, motor, limbic, and prefrontal cortex of the vervet monkey. Sampling from the same cortical regions in the two animals (stylized at top right) resulted in remarkably similar trends in these estimates in visual, somatosensory, motor, and limbic cortex of both animals (top right). In granular prefrontal cortex (gPFC), however, we found unprecedented differences in our estimates of the total number of dendritic spines in the basal dendritic tree of the “average” layer III pyramidal cell among cortical areas (bottom left), despite standardizing the regions sampled between cases (bottom right). V1 = primary visual, V2 = second visual, V4 = fourth visual, 3b = primary somatosensory, 1/2/5/7 = somatosensory association, 4 = primary motor, 6 = premotor, 23 = posterior cingulate, 24 = anterior cingulate, 9/10/12/13/46 = prefrontal areas, 32 = cingulate.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3039119&req=5

Figure 7: Plots of our estimates of the total number of dendritic spines in the basal dendritic tree of the “average” layer III pyramidal cell in visual, somatosensory, motor, limbic, and prefrontal cortex of the vervet monkey. Sampling from the same cortical regions in the two animals (stylized at top right) resulted in remarkably similar trends in these estimates in visual, somatosensory, motor, and limbic cortex of both animals (top right). In granular prefrontal cortex (gPFC), however, we found unprecedented differences in our estimates of the total number of dendritic spines in the basal dendritic tree of the “average” layer III pyramidal cell among cortical areas (bottom left), despite standardizing the regions sampled between cases (bottom right). V1 = primary visual, V2 = second visual, V4 = fourth visual, 3b = primary somatosensory, 1/2/5/7 = somatosensory association, 4 = primary motor, 6 = premotor, 23 = posterior cingulate, 24 = anterior cingulate, 9/10/12/13/46 = prefrontal areas, 32 = cingulate.
Mentions: The mean and standard deviation in spine density per 10 μm (as a function of distance from the soma to the distal tips of 10 randomly selected horizontally projecting basal dendrites of different cells in each cortical area) are plotted in Figure 5C. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the distribution of spines along the dendrites cells between cortical areas in both VM1 (F(1,4) = 4.23) and VM2 (F(1,4) = 7.53). Post hoc Scheffe tests revealed that spine density in area 32 was significantly different to that in areas 9d and 9m in VM1 and area 10 in VM2. None of the six possible pair-wise comparisons between prefrontal areas were significantly different in VM1. Three of the six pair-wise comparisons between prefrontal areas were significantly different in VM2 (Table 6). There was a >50% difference in our estimates of the total number of dendritic spines in the basal dendritic arbor of the “average” pyramidal neuron in areas of the gPFC (Figure 7; Table 7).

Bottom Line: Here we undertook a survey of pyramidal cells in the dorsolateral, medial, and orbital gPFC of cercopithecid primates.We found marked heterogeneity in pyramidal cell structure within and between these regions.Moreover, trends for gradients in neuronal complexity varied among species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience Sunshine Coast, QLD, Australia.

ABSTRACT
The most ubiquitous neuron in the cerebral cortex, the pyramidal cell, is characterized by markedly different dendritic structure among different cortical areas. The complex pyramidal cell phenotype in granular prefrontal cortex (gPFC) of higher primates endows specific biophysical properties and patterns of connectivity, which differ from those in other cortical regions. However, within the gPFC, data have been sampled from only a select few cortical areas. The gPFC of species such as human and macaque monkey includes more than 10 cortical areas. It remains unknown as to what degree pyramidal cell structure may vary among these cortical areas. Here we undertook a survey of pyramidal cells in the dorsolateral, medial, and orbital gPFC of cercopithecid primates. We found marked heterogeneity in pyramidal cell structure within and between these regions. Moreover, trends for gradients in neuronal complexity varied among species. As the structure of neurons determines their computational abilities, memory storage capacity and connectivity, we propose that these specializations in the pyramidal cell phenotype are an important determinant of species-specific executive cortical functions in primates.

No MeSH data available.