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Pyramidal cells in prefrontal cortex of primates: marked differences in neuronal structure among species.

Elston GN, Benavides-Piccione R, Elston A, Manger PR, Defelipe J - Front Neuroanat (2011)

Bottom Line: Here we undertook a survey of pyramidal cells in the dorsolateral, medial, and orbital gPFC of cercopithecid primates.We found marked heterogeneity in pyramidal cell structure within and between these regions.Moreover, trends for gradients in neuronal complexity varied among species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience Sunshine Coast, QLD, Australia.

ABSTRACT
The most ubiquitous neuron in the cerebral cortex, the pyramidal cell, is characterized by markedly different dendritic structure among different cortical areas. The complex pyramidal cell phenotype in granular prefrontal cortex (gPFC) of higher primates endows specific biophysical properties and patterns of connectivity, which differ from those in other cortical regions. However, within the gPFC, data have been sampled from only a select few cortical areas. The gPFC of species such as human and macaque monkey includes more than 10 cortical areas. It remains unknown as to what degree pyramidal cell structure may vary among these cortical areas. Here we undertook a survey of pyramidal cells in the dorsolateral, medial, and orbital gPFC of cercopithecid primates. We found marked heterogeneity in pyramidal cell structure within and between these regions. Moreover, trends for gradients in neuronal complexity varied among species. As the structure of neurons determines their computational abilities, memory storage capacity and connectivity, we propose that these specializations in the pyramidal cell phenotype are an important determinant of species-specific executive cortical functions in primates.

No MeSH data available.


Schematic illustrating where neurons were sampled (dots) in the dorsolateral, medial, and orbital prefrontal cortex of the macaque monkey (A), vervet monkey (B), and baboon (C).
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Figure 2: Schematic illustrating where neurons were sampled (dots) in the dorsolateral, medial, and orbital prefrontal cortex of the macaque monkey (A), vervet monkey (B), and baboon (C).

Mentions: Two adult macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; 4.5 years old; MF1 ≈ 5 kg, MF2 ≈ 4.5 kg), two adult vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus pygerythrus; age unknown; VM1 = 6.1 kg, VM2 = 5.5 kg), and two adult baboons (Papio ursinus; age unknown; B1 = 23.1 kg, B2 = 23.1 kg) were used in the present study. Based on weight, musculature and appearence of the vervet monkeys and baboons we estimate that they were mature but not adolescent nor elderly. All animals were males. All tissue was sampled from the left hemisphere. Macaque tissue was taken from the anterior lateral portion of the superior frontal gyrus (corresponding to Walker's and Petrides and Pandya's area 9 or Preuss and Goldman-Rakic's area 9d) (Walker, 1940; Preuss and Goldman-Rakic, 1991a,b,c; Petrides and Pandya, 2001), the anterior medial portion of the superior frontal gyrus (area 9m of Preuss and Goldman-Rakic, corresponding to Walker's area 9), the medial frontal gyrus (corresponding to Walker's and Petrides and Pandya's area 46 or Preuss and Goldman-Rakic's area 46vr), the inferior frontal gyrus (corresponding to Walker's area 46, Petrides and Pandya's area 45A or Preuss and Goldman-Rakic's area 12vl), the medial portion of the frontal pole anterior to the rostral sulcus (corresponding to area 10 of Walker, Preuss and Goldman-Rakic and Petrides and Pandya), the end of the orbital cortex between the medial orbital sulcus and the lateral orbital sulcus, inferior to the intermediate orbital sulcus (area 12orb of Preuss and Goldman-Rakic, corresponding to Walker's area 13 and Petrides and Pandya's area 14) of the left hemisphere (Figure 2). Likewise, tissue from the vervet monkey and baboon was sampled from dorsolateral, medial, and orbital gPFC (Figure 2). Specifically, prefrontal areas 9d, 10, 46d, 12vl, and 13 were studied in the baboon and prefrontal areas 9m, 9d, 10, 13, and cingulate area 32, were studied in the vervet monkey. The homology of the specific areas included for analyses remains to be determined.


Pyramidal cells in prefrontal cortex of primates: marked differences in neuronal structure among species.

Elston GN, Benavides-Piccione R, Elston A, Manger PR, Defelipe J - Front Neuroanat (2011)

Schematic illustrating where neurons were sampled (dots) in the dorsolateral, medial, and orbital prefrontal cortex of the macaque monkey (A), vervet monkey (B), and baboon (C).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3039119&req=5

Figure 2: Schematic illustrating where neurons were sampled (dots) in the dorsolateral, medial, and orbital prefrontal cortex of the macaque monkey (A), vervet monkey (B), and baboon (C).
Mentions: Two adult macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; 4.5 years old; MF1 ≈ 5 kg, MF2 ≈ 4.5 kg), two adult vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus pygerythrus; age unknown; VM1 = 6.1 kg, VM2 = 5.5 kg), and two adult baboons (Papio ursinus; age unknown; B1 = 23.1 kg, B2 = 23.1 kg) were used in the present study. Based on weight, musculature and appearence of the vervet monkeys and baboons we estimate that they were mature but not adolescent nor elderly. All animals were males. All tissue was sampled from the left hemisphere. Macaque tissue was taken from the anterior lateral portion of the superior frontal gyrus (corresponding to Walker's and Petrides and Pandya's area 9 or Preuss and Goldman-Rakic's area 9d) (Walker, 1940; Preuss and Goldman-Rakic, 1991a,b,c; Petrides and Pandya, 2001), the anterior medial portion of the superior frontal gyrus (area 9m of Preuss and Goldman-Rakic, corresponding to Walker's area 9), the medial frontal gyrus (corresponding to Walker's and Petrides and Pandya's area 46 or Preuss and Goldman-Rakic's area 46vr), the inferior frontal gyrus (corresponding to Walker's area 46, Petrides and Pandya's area 45A or Preuss and Goldman-Rakic's area 12vl), the medial portion of the frontal pole anterior to the rostral sulcus (corresponding to area 10 of Walker, Preuss and Goldman-Rakic and Petrides and Pandya), the end of the orbital cortex between the medial orbital sulcus and the lateral orbital sulcus, inferior to the intermediate orbital sulcus (area 12orb of Preuss and Goldman-Rakic, corresponding to Walker's area 13 and Petrides and Pandya's area 14) of the left hemisphere (Figure 2). Likewise, tissue from the vervet monkey and baboon was sampled from dorsolateral, medial, and orbital gPFC (Figure 2). Specifically, prefrontal areas 9d, 10, 46d, 12vl, and 13 were studied in the baboon and prefrontal areas 9m, 9d, 10, 13, and cingulate area 32, were studied in the vervet monkey. The homology of the specific areas included for analyses remains to be determined.

Bottom Line: Here we undertook a survey of pyramidal cells in the dorsolateral, medial, and orbital gPFC of cercopithecid primates.We found marked heterogeneity in pyramidal cell structure within and between these regions.Moreover, trends for gradients in neuronal complexity varied among species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience Sunshine Coast, QLD, Australia.

ABSTRACT
The most ubiquitous neuron in the cerebral cortex, the pyramidal cell, is characterized by markedly different dendritic structure among different cortical areas. The complex pyramidal cell phenotype in granular prefrontal cortex (gPFC) of higher primates endows specific biophysical properties and patterns of connectivity, which differ from those in other cortical regions. However, within the gPFC, data have been sampled from only a select few cortical areas. The gPFC of species such as human and macaque monkey includes more than 10 cortical areas. It remains unknown as to what degree pyramidal cell structure may vary among these cortical areas. Here we undertook a survey of pyramidal cells in the dorsolateral, medial, and orbital gPFC of cercopithecid primates. We found marked heterogeneity in pyramidal cell structure within and between these regions. Moreover, trends for gradients in neuronal complexity varied among species. As the structure of neurons determines their computational abilities, memory storage capacity and connectivity, we propose that these specializations in the pyramidal cell phenotype are an important determinant of species-specific executive cortical functions in primates.

No MeSH data available.