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Evidence for a role of the host-specific flea (Paraceras melis) in the transmission of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) pestanai to the European badger.

Lizundia R, Newman C, Buesching CD, Ngugi D, Blake D, Sin YW, Macdonald DW, Wilson A, McKeever D - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: High levels of genotypic polymorphism were observed between the isolates.Wet smears and Giemsa-stained preparations from dissected fleas revealed large numbers of trypanosome-like forms in the hindgut, some of which were undergoing binary fission.We conclude that P. melis is the primary vector of T. pestanai in European badgers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hatfield, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
We investigated the epidemiology of Trypanosoma pestanai infection in European badgers (Meles meles) from Wytham Woods (Oxfordshire, UK) to determine prevalence rates and to identify the arthropod vector responsible for transmission. A total of 245 badger blood samples was collected during September and November 2009 and examined by PCR using primers derived from the 18S rRNA of T. pestanai. The parasite was detected in blood from 31% of individuals tested. T. pestanai was isolated from primary cultures of Wytham badger peripheral blood mononuclear cells and propagated continually in vitro. This population was compared with cultures of two geographically distinct isolates of the parasite by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and PCR analysis of 18S rDNA and ITS1 sequences. High levels of genotypic polymorphism were observed between the isolates. PCR analysis of badger fleas (Paraceras melis) collected from infected individuals at Wytham indicated the presence of T. pestanai and this was confirmed by examination of dissected specimens. Wet smears and Giemsa-stained preparations from dissected fleas revealed large numbers of trypanosome-like forms in the hindgut, some of which were undergoing binary fission. We conclude that P. melis is the primary vector of T. pestanai in European badgers.

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Western blot showing a robust IgG response of badgers against T. pestanai lysates.(A, left) Female badger serum, PCR negative in blood. (A, right) male badger serum, PCR positive in blood. (B, left) badger serum response against East Anglia isolate. (B, right) same badger serum response against Oxford isolate. (C) Western blot in the absence of badger serum (HRP-conjugated anti-badger IgG antibody only).
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pone-0016977-g004: Western blot showing a robust IgG response of badgers against T. pestanai lysates.(A, left) Female badger serum, PCR negative in blood. (A, right) male badger serum, PCR positive in blood. (B, left) badger serum response against East Anglia isolate. (B, right) same badger serum response against Oxford isolate. (C) Western blot in the absence of badger serum (HRP-conjugated anti-badger IgG antibody only).

Mentions: Western blot analysis of sera from infected (PCR+ve in blood) and uninfected (PCR−ve in blood) badgers showed a broadly specific IgG response against T. pestanai lysates without exception, with male and female animals showing similar breadth of response (Fig. 4A). Antigenic differences were evident between the Oxford and East Anglia isolates when probed with individual badger sera (Fig. 4B). No seronegative badgers were observed over the trapping period.


Evidence for a role of the host-specific flea (Paraceras melis) in the transmission of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) pestanai to the European badger.

Lizundia R, Newman C, Buesching CD, Ngugi D, Blake D, Sin YW, Macdonald DW, Wilson A, McKeever D - PLoS ONE (2011)

Western blot showing a robust IgG response of badgers against T. pestanai lysates.(A, left) Female badger serum, PCR negative in blood. (A, right) male badger serum, PCR positive in blood. (B, left) badger serum response against East Anglia isolate. (B, right) same badger serum response against Oxford isolate. (C) Western blot in the absence of badger serum (HRP-conjugated anti-badger IgG antibody only).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3038870&req=5

pone-0016977-g004: Western blot showing a robust IgG response of badgers against T. pestanai lysates.(A, left) Female badger serum, PCR negative in blood. (A, right) male badger serum, PCR positive in blood. (B, left) badger serum response against East Anglia isolate. (B, right) same badger serum response against Oxford isolate. (C) Western blot in the absence of badger serum (HRP-conjugated anti-badger IgG antibody only).
Mentions: Western blot analysis of sera from infected (PCR+ve in blood) and uninfected (PCR−ve in blood) badgers showed a broadly specific IgG response against T. pestanai lysates without exception, with male and female animals showing similar breadth of response (Fig. 4A). Antigenic differences were evident between the Oxford and East Anglia isolates when probed with individual badger sera (Fig. 4B). No seronegative badgers were observed over the trapping period.

Bottom Line: High levels of genotypic polymorphism were observed between the isolates.Wet smears and Giemsa-stained preparations from dissected fleas revealed large numbers of trypanosome-like forms in the hindgut, some of which were undergoing binary fission.We conclude that P. melis is the primary vector of T. pestanai in European badgers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hatfield, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
We investigated the epidemiology of Trypanosoma pestanai infection in European badgers (Meles meles) from Wytham Woods (Oxfordshire, UK) to determine prevalence rates and to identify the arthropod vector responsible for transmission. A total of 245 badger blood samples was collected during September and November 2009 and examined by PCR using primers derived from the 18S rRNA of T. pestanai. The parasite was detected in blood from 31% of individuals tested. T. pestanai was isolated from primary cultures of Wytham badger peripheral blood mononuclear cells and propagated continually in vitro. This population was compared with cultures of two geographically distinct isolates of the parasite by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and PCR analysis of 18S rDNA and ITS1 sequences. High levels of genotypic polymorphism were observed between the isolates. PCR analysis of badger fleas (Paraceras melis) collected from infected individuals at Wytham indicated the presence of T. pestanai and this was confirmed by examination of dissected specimens. Wet smears and Giemsa-stained preparations from dissected fleas revealed large numbers of trypanosome-like forms in the hindgut, some of which were undergoing binary fission. We conclude that P. melis is the primary vector of T. pestanai in European badgers.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus