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New perspectives on the ecology and evolution of siboglinid tubeworms.

Hilário A, Capa M, Dahlgren TG, Halanych KM, Little CT, Thornhill DJ, Verna C, Glover AG - PLoS ONE (2011)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar and Departamento de Biologia, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.

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Siboglinids are tube-dwelling annelids that are important members of deep-sea chemosynthetic communities, which include hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, whale falls and reduced sediments... Molecular systematic methods now place these animals, formerly known as the phyla Pogonophora and Vestimentifera, within the polychaete clade Siboglinidae... However, the story of Siboglinidae has, in the last five years, received a new twist: the discovery of an entirely new species-rich clade of highly derived siboglinids, known as Osedax, that appear to live exclusively on mammal (typically whale) bones, –... If correct this would constitute the oldest fossil record of this clade and the age is roughly the same as the first major radiation of whales, which strengthens the idea of an evolutionary link between Osedax and its main modern substrate... At cold seeps, siboglinids are almost always living within a sedimented environment, although hard substrates do form through carbonate precipitation... Frenulates are also found in sedimented environments, in the anoxic muds beneath organically-enriched regions, although sulphide levels are generally lower than at vents and seeps... Whereas vestimentiferans living on hydrothermal vent chimneys absorb sulphide through a branchial plume that extends up to 2 m into the water column, vestimentiferans living in cold seeps obtain sulphide from the sediment, across the wall of the buried tube (Figure 6)... Frenulates, notwithstanding some exceptions, are found mainly in organic-rich, reduced sediments... One is a hexagonal bilayer haemoglobin (HBL-Hb) that is capable of binding oxygen and sulphide simultaneously and reversibly, , enabling the animals to transport and store both substances in large quantities while minimizing autoxidation and toxic effects... A second type of haemoglobin detected in Siboglinidae is a ring-Hb that has been found in Vestimentifera, Sclerolinum, and Frenulata... Therefore, differences between siboglinid habitats are expected to have a role in the evolution of life-history traits, including fecundity, breeding strategy and developmental mode... At present, we do not have estimates of lifetime fecundity for any siboglinid... A detailed phylogenetic analysis of Siboglinidae is needed to provide a framework for understanding the evolution of life-history traits in the group... However, it does appear that the various reproductive strategies found in siboglinids are related to environmental conditions... This seemingly ordered trend has been complicated by the discovery of the Osedax clade, specialist on whale bones and using heterotrophic rather than chemoautotrophic symbionts.

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Examples of siboglinid species and their habitat requirements.A) Riftia pachyptila giant tubeworms growing on a hydrothermal vent in the north-east Pacific (Image courtesy of Richard Lutz), B) Lamellibrachia luymesi at a cold seep in the Gulf of Mexico (Image courtesy of DT, KH, Kevin Fielman and Scott Santos) and C) Osedax mucofloris living on a whale-bone found off the coast of Sweden.
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pone-0016309-g002: Examples of siboglinid species and their habitat requirements.A) Riftia pachyptila giant tubeworms growing on a hydrothermal vent in the north-east Pacific (Image courtesy of Richard Lutz), B) Lamellibrachia luymesi at a cold seep in the Gulf of Mexico (Image courtesy of DT, KH, Kevin Fielman and Scott Santos) and C) Osedax mucofloris living on a whale-bone found off the coast of Sweden.

Mentions: Deep-sea worms in the polychaete family Siboglinidae are not yet thought to be of any commercial or medical value to humans. Nevertheless, in 50 years of research, 27 publications have appeared in the top-cited science journals Nature and Science that deal exclusively with species in this group and these papers have been cited a total of 1621 times as of the time of writing [1]–[27] (Figure 1). The highest-cited paper (for which metrics exist) on any siboglinid [13] has received 389 citations, 147 more than the next highest-cited paper in that same issue of Science, on the role of insulin in determining diabetes [28]. Not surprising, 13 of these 27 publications in Nature or Science focus exclusively on a single species of siboglinid worm, Riftia pachyptila Jones, 1980 (Figure 2a). This giant worm, discovered on hydrothermal vents at the Galapagos Rift in 1977 became the poster-child of deep-sea discovery, the ‘lost world’ of unknown animal lineages that scientists on the Challenger deep-sea expedition 100 years previously had so wanted, but failed, to find. Arguably, this single species of worm launched the careers of a generation of deep-sea biologists.


New perspectives on the ecology and evolution of siboglinid tubeworms.

Hilário A, Capa M, Dahlgren TG, Halanych KM, Little CT, Thornhill DJ, Verna C, Glover AG - PLoS ONE (2011)

Examples of siboglinid species and their habitat requirements.A) Riftia pachyptila giant tubeworms growing on a hydrothermal vent in the north-east Pacific (Image courtesy of Richard Lutz), B) Lamellibrachia luymesi at a cold seep in the Gulf of Mexico (Image courtesy of DT, KH, Kevin Fielman and Scott Santos) and C) Osedax mucofloris living on a whale-bone found off the coast of Sweden.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3038861&req=5

pone-0016309-g002: Examples of siboglinid species and their habitat requirements.A) Riftia pachyptila giant tubeworms growing on a hydrothermal vent in the north-east Pacific (Image courtesy of Richard Lutz), B) Lamellibrachia luymesi at a cold seep in the Gulf of Mexico (Image courtesy of DT, KH, Kevin Fielman and Scott Santos) and C) Osedax mucofloris living on a whale-bone found off the coast of Sweden.
Mentions: Deep-sea worms in the polychaete family Siboglinidae are not yet thought to be of any commercial or medical value to humans. Nevertheless, in 50 years of research, 27 publications have appeared in the top-cited science journals Nature and Science that deal exclusively with species in this group and these papers have been cited a total of 1621 times as of the time of writing [1]–[27] (Figure 1). The highest-cited paper (for which metrics exist) on any siboglinid [13] has received 389 citations, 147 more than the next highest-cited paper in that same issue of Science, on the role of insulin in determining diabetes [28]. Not surprising, 13 of these 27 publications in Nature or Science focus exclusively on a single species of siboglinid worm, Riftia pachyptila Jones, 1980 (Figure 2a). This giant worm, discovered on hydrothermal vents at the Galapagos Rift in 1977 became the poster-child of deep-sea discovery, the ‘lost world’ of unknown animal lineages that scientists on the Challenger deep-sea expedition 100 years previously had so wanted, but failed, to find. Arguably, this single species of worm launched the careers of a generation of deep-sea biologists.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar and Departamento de Biologia, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Siboglinids are tube-dwelling annelids that are important members of deep-sea chemosynthetic communities, which include hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, whale falls and reduced sediments... Molecular systematic methods now place these animals, formerly known as the phyla Pogonophora and Vestimentifera, within the polychaete clade Siboglinidae... However, the story of Siboglinidae has, in the last five years, received a new twist: the discovery of an entirely new species-rich clade of highly derived siboglinids, known as Osedax, that appear to live exclusively on mammal (typically whale) bones, –... If correct this would constitute the oldest fossil record of this clade and the age is roughly the same as the first major radiation of whales, which strengthens the idea of an evolutionary link between Osedax and its main modern substrate... At cold seeps, siboglinids are almost always living within a sedimented environment, although hard substrates do form through carbonate precipitation... Frenulates are also found in sedimented environments, in the anoxic muds beneath organically-enriched regions, although sulphide levels are generally lower than at vents and seeps... Whereas vestimentiferans living on hydrothermal vent chimneys absorb sulphide through a branchial plume that extends up to 2 m into the water column, vestimentiferans living in cold seeps obtain sulphide from the sediment, across the wall of the buried tube (Figure 6)... Frenulates, notwithstanding some exceptions, are found mainly in organic-rich, reduced sediments... One is a hexagonal bilayer haemoglobin (HBL-Hb) that is capable of binding oxygen and sulphide simultaneously and reversibly, , enabling the animals to transport and store both substances in large quantities while minimizing autoxidation and toxic effects... A second type of haemoglobin detected in Siboglinidae is a ring-Hb that has been found in Vestimentifera, Sclerolinum, and Frenulata... Therefore, differences between siboglinid habitats are expected to have a role in the evolution of life-history traits, including fecundity, breeding strategy and developmental mode... At present, we do not have estimates of lifetime fecundity for any siboglinid... A detailed phylogenetic analysis of Siboglinidae is needed to provide a framework for understanding the evolution of life-history traits in the group... However, it does appear that the various reproductive strategies found in siboglinids are related to environmental conditions... This seemingly ordered trend has been complicated by the discovery of the Osedax clade, specialist on whale bones and using heterotrophic rather than chemoautotrophic symbionts.

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