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Variation of inflammatory dynamics and mediators in primiparous cows after intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli.

Pezeshki A, Stordeur P, Wallemacq H, Schynts F, Stevens M, Boutet P, Peelman LJ, De Spiegeleer B, Duchateau L, Bureau F, Burvenich C - Vet. Res. (2011)

Bottom Line: The infrared images were taken from the caudal view of the udder following challenge with E. coli.Moreover, reduced somatic cell count (SCC), fewer circulating basophils, increased concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and higher milk sodium and lower milk potassium concentrations were related to systemic disease severity.Although infrared thermography was a successful method for detecting the changes in udder skin surface temperature following intramammary challenge with E. coli, it did not show to be a promising tool for early detection of mastitis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Comparative Physiology and Biometrics, Laboratory of Genetics, Drug Quality and Registration Group, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. Christian.Burvenich@UGent.be.

ABSTRACT
The objective of the current study was to investigate (i) the outcome of experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis in primiparous cows during early lactation in relation with production of eicosanoids and inflammatory indicators, and (ii) the validity of thermography to evaluate temperature changes on udder skin surface after experimentally induced E. coli mastitis. Nine primiparous Holstein Friesian cows were inoculated 24 ± 6 days (d) after parturition in both left quarters with E. coli P4 serotype O32:H37. Blood and milk samples were collected before and after challenge with E. coli. The infrared images were taken from the caudal view of the udder following challenge with E. coli. No relationship was detected between severity of mastitis and changes of thromboxane B2 (TXB2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4). However, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was related to systemic disease severity during E. coli mastitis. Moreover, reduced somatic cell count (SCC), fewer circulating basophils, increased concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and higher milk sodium and lower milk potassium concentrations were related to systemic disease severity. The thermal camera was capable of detecting 2-3 °C temperature changes on udder skin surface of cows inoculated with E. coli. Peak of udder skin temperature occurred after peak of rectal temperature and appearance of local signs of induced E. coli mastitis. Although infrared thermography was a successful method for detecting the changes in udder skin surface temperature following intramammary challenge with E. coli, it did not show to be a promising tool for early detection of mastitis.

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Thermal images of the caudal part of the udder of a primiparous cow after challenge with E. coli strain P4, serotype O32:H37 (1 × 104 cfu) at post infusion hour (PIH) 3 (A) and PIH 12 (B) during early lactation. Two fixed 25 × 25 pixel areas above the teats used to extract the data at various time points following intramammary infection. Left quarters were infected at PIH 0 and right quarters were control quarters. There was a significant increase for udder skin temperature between PIH 0 and PIH 12 in both infected (P = 0.02) and control quarters (P = 0.009).
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Figure 1: Thermal images of the caudal part of the udder of a primiparous cow after challenge with E. coli strain P4, serotype O32:H37 (1 × 104 cfu) at post infusion hour (PIH) 3 (A) and PIH 12 (B) during early lactation. Two fixed 25 × 25 pixel areas above the teats used to extract the data at various time points following intramammary infection. Left quarters were infected at PIH 0 and right quarters were control quarters. There was a significant increase for udder skin temperature between PIH 0 and PIH 12 in both infected (P = 0.02) and control quarters (P = 0.009).

Mentions: The output of the infrared camera was un-calibrated digitized images with pixel points. Pixel points were analyzed with appropriate computer software (FLIR QuickReport 1.2) to generate mean temperature of the skin surface. The mean temperature variation of four different areas between the groove of the udder and the hind leg and median suspensory ligament on caudal udder skin surface was examined. The areas were selected above the infected and control teats and centered according to the teats. The mean temperature of rectangles of 25 × 25 pixels drawn by the help of the camera software was measured (Figure 1). The two areas just above the teats showed the smallest variation in the temperature of the udder (Figure 1). An example of the infrared images at 3 and 12 PIH is shown in Figure 1A and Figure 1B, respectively.


Variation of inflammatory dynamics and mediators in primiparous cows after intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli.

Pezeshki A, Stordeur P, Wallemacq H, Schynts F, Stevens M, Boutet P, Peelman LJ, De Spiegeleer B, Duchateau L, Bureau F, Burvenich C - Vet. Res. (2011)

Thermal images of the caudal part of the udder of a primiparous cow after challenge with E. coli strain P4, serotype O32:H37 (1 × 104 cfu) at post infusion hour (PIH) 3 (A) and PIH 12 (B) during early lactation. Two fixed 25 × 25 pixel areas above the teats used to extract the data at various time points following intramammary infection. Left quarters were infected at PIH 0 and right quarters were control quarters. There was a significant increase for udder skin temperature between PIH 0 and PIH 12 in both infected (P = 0.02) and control quarters (P = 0.009).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3037895&req=5

Figure 1: Thermal images of the caudal part of the udder of a primiparous cow after challenge with E. coli strain P4, serotype O32:H37 (1 × 104 cfu) at post infusion hour (PIH) 3 (A) and PIH 12 (B) during early lactation. Two fixed 25 × 25 pixel areas above the teats used to extract the data at various time points following intramammary infection. Left quarters were infected at PIH 0 and right quarters were control quarters. There was a significant increase for udder skin temperature between PIH 0 and PIH 12 in both infected (P = 0.02) and control quarters (P = 0.009).
Mentions: The output of the infrared camera was un-calibrated digitized images with pixel points. Pixel points were analyzed with appropriate computer software (FLIR QuickReport 1.2) to generate mean temperature of the skin surface. The mean temperature variation of four different areas between the groove of the udder and the hind leg and median suspensory ligament on caudal udder skin surface was examined. The areas were selected above the infected and control teats and centered according to the teats. The mean temperature of rectangles of 25 × 25 pixels drawn by the help of the camera software was measured (Figure 1). The two areas just above the teats showed the smallest variation in the temperature of the udder (Figure 1). An example of the infrared images at 3 and 12 PIH is shown in Figure 1A and Figure 1B, respectively.

Bottom Line: The infrared images were taken from the caudal view of the udder following challenge with E. coli.Moreover, reduced somatic cell count (SCC), fewer circulating basophils, increased concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and higher milk sodium and lower milk potassium concentrations were related to systemic disease severity.Although infrared thermography was a successful method for detecting the changes in udder skin surface temperature following intramammary challenge with E. coli, it did not show to be a promising tool for early detection of mastitis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Comparative Physiology and Biometrics, Laboratory of Genetics, Drug Quality and Registration Group, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. Christian.Burvenich@UGent.be.

ABSTRACT
The objective of the current study was to investigate (i) the outcome of experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis in primiparous cows during early lactation in relation with production of eicosanoids and inflammatory indicators, and (ii) the validity of thermography to evaluate temperature changes on udder skin surface after experimentally induced E. coli mastitis. Nine primiparous Holstein Friesian cows were inoculated 24 ± 6 days (d) after parturition in both left quarters with E. coli P4 serotype O32:H37. Blood and milk samples were collected before and after challenge with E. coli. The infrared images were taken from the caudal view of the udder following challenge with E. coli. No relationship was detected between severity of mastitis and changes of thromboxane B2 (TXB2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4). However, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was related to systemic disease severity during E. coli mastitis. Moreover, reduced somatic cell count (SCC), fewer circulating basophils, increased concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and higher milk sodium and lower milk potassium concentrations were related to systemic disease severity. The thermal camera was capable of detecting 2-3 °C temperature changes on udder skin surface of cows inoculated with E. coli. Peak of udder skin temperature occurred after peak of rectal temperature and appearance of local signs of induced E. coli mastitis. Although infrared thermography was a successful method for detecting the changes in udder skin surface temperature following intramammary challenge with E. coli, it did not show to be a promising tool for early detection of mastitis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus