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Social allostasis: anticipatory regulation of the internal milieu.

Schulkin J - Front Evol Neurosci (2011)

Bottom Line: Homeostatic regulation, a dominant perspective, reflects reactive responses; allostatic regulation, the physiology of change, emphasizes longer-term anticipatory, and feedforward systems.Steroids, such as cortisol, and peptides such as corticotrophin releasing hormone are but one example of such anticipatory regulatory systems.The concept of "allostasis" is in part to take account of anticipatory control amidst diverse forms of adaptation underlying this regulatory adaptation that supports social contact and the internal milieu.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Washington, DC, USA.

ABSTRACT
Social regulation of the internal milieu is a fundamental behavioral adaptation. Cephalic capability is reflected by anticipatory behaviors to serve systemic physiological regulation. Homeostatic regulation, a dominant perspective, reflects reactive responses; allostatic regulation, the physiology of change, emphasizes longer-term anticipatory, and feedforward systems. Steroids, such as cortisol, and peptides such as corticotrophin releasing hormone are but one example of such anticipatory regulatory systems. The concept of "allostasis" is in part to take account of anticipatory control amidst diverse forms of adaptation underlying this regulatory adaptation that supports social contact and the internal milieu.

No MeSH data available.


Cortisol, the adrenal hormone is secreted (or not) under diverse conditions, one of which is uncertainty of social stability in the life of a baboon troop (adapted from Sapolsky, 1995).
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Figure 4: Cortisol, the adrenal hormone is secreted (or not) under diverse conditions, one of which is uncertainty of social stability in the life of a baboon troop (adapted from Sapolsky, 1995).

Mentions: But it is not axiomatic that cortisol is elevated in the downtrodden, insecure members of primate groups (c.f. Sapolsky, 1990, 1992, 1995; Saltzman et al., 1994, 1998; Creel, 2001). Behavioral adaptation can result in elevated levels of cortisol in many contexts (Abbott et al., 2003). It is not the case with cortisol that elevated levels equals adversity. The important point about cortisol is not whether it is elevated in dominance or the socially less fortunate group member, but whether there are behavioral strategies for regulating it; turning it off, decreasing and increasing the level when necessary and its costs when not, social status. Social comfort is one such strategy (Sapolsky, 1995; Wingfield, 2004). In an interesting confluence of two disciplines, the cognitive ethological literature and the endocrine regulatory literature, the social milieu is long known in both to help regulate steroid levels (e.g., Eberhart et al., 1980; Sapolsky, 1990, 1995; Figure 4).


Social allostasis: anticipatory regulation of the internal milieu.

Schulkin J - Front Evol Neurosci (2011)

Cortisol, the adrenal hormone is secreted (or not) under diverse conditions, one of which is uncertainty of social stability in the life of a baboon troop (adapted from Sapolsky, 1995).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3037529&req=5

Figure 4: Cortisol, the adrenal hormone is secreted (or not) under diverse conditions, one of which is uncertainty of social stability in the life of a baboon troop (adapted from Sapolsky, 1995).
Mentions: But it is not axiomatic that cortisol is elevated in the downtrodden, insecure members of primate groups (c.f. Sapolsky, 1990, 1992, 1995; Saltzman et al., 1994, 1998; Creel, 2001). Behavioral adaptation can result in elevated levels of cortisol in many contexts (Abbott et al., 2003). It is not the case with cortisol that elevated levels equals adversity. The important point about cortisol is not whether it is elevated in dominance or the socially less fortunate group member, but whether there are behavioral strategies for regulating it; turning it off, decreasing and increasing the level when necessary and its costs when not, social status. Social comfort is one such strategy (Sapolsky, 1995; Wingfield, 2004). In an interesting confluence of two disciplines, the cognitive ethological literature and the endocrine regulatory literature, the social milieu is long known in both to help regulate steroid levels (e.g., Eberhart et al., 1980; Sapolsky, 1990, 1995; Figure 4).

Bottom Line: Homeostatic regulation, a dominant perspective, reflects reactive responses; allostatic regulation, the physiology of change, emphasizes longer-term anticipatory, and feedforward systems.Steroids, such as cortisol, and peptides such as corticotrophin releasing hormone are but one example of such anticipatory regulatory systems.The concept of "allostasis" is in part to take account of anticipatory control amidst diverse forms of adaptation underlying this regulatory adaptation that supports social contact and the internal milieu.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Washington, DC, USA.

ABSTRACT
Social regulation of the internal milieu is a fundamental behavioral adaptation. Cephalic capability is reflected by anticipatory behaviors to serve systemic physiological regulation. Homeostatic regulation, a dominant perspective, reflects reactive responses; allostatic regulation, the physiology of change, emphasizes longer-term anticipatory, and feedforward systems. Steroids, such as cortisol, and peptides such as corticotrophin releasing hormone are but one example of such anticipatory regulatory systems. The concept of "allostasis" is in part to take account of anticipatory control amidst diverse forms of adaptation underlying this regulatory adaptation that supports social contact and the internal milieu.

No MeSH data available.