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Early life exposure to diagnostic radiation and ultrasound scans and risk of childhood cancer: case-control study.

Rajaraman P, Simpson J, Neta G, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Ansell P, Linet MS, Ron E, Roman E - BMJ (2011)

Bottom Line: Some indication existed of a slight increase in risk after in utero exposure to x rays for all cancers (odds ratio 1.l4, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 1.45) and leukaemia (1.36, 0.91 to 2.02), but this was not statistically significant.Exposure to diagnostic x rays in early infancy (0-100 days) was associated with small, non-significant excess risks for all cancers and leukaemia, as well as increased risk of lymphoma (odds ratio 5.14, 1.27 to 20.78) on the basis of small numbers.Although the results for lymphoma need to be replicated, all of the findings indicate possible risks of cancer from radiation at doses lower than those associated with commonly used procedures such as computed tomography scans, suggesting the need for cautious use of diagnostic radiation imaging procedures to the abdomen/pelvis of the mother during pregnancy and in children at very young ages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892-7238, USA. rajarama@mail.nih.gov

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine childhood cancer risks associated with exposure to diagnostic radiation and ultrasound scans in utero and in early infancy (age 0-100 days).

Design: Case-control study.

Setting: England and Wales.

Participants: 2690 childhood cancer cases and 4858 age, sex, and region matched controls from the United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS), born 1976-96.

Main outcome measures: Risk of all childhood cancer, leukaemia, lymphoma, and central nervous system tumours, measured by odds ratios.

Results: Logistic regression models conditioned on matching factors, with adjustment for maternal age and child's birth weight, showed no evidence of increased risk of childhood cancer with in utero exposure to ultrasound scans. Some indication existed of a slight increase in risk after in utero exposure to x rays for all cancers (odds ratio 1.l4, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 1.45) and leukaemia (1.36, 0.91 to 2.02), but this was not statistically significant. Exposure to diagnostic x rays in early infancy (0-100 days) was associated with small, non-significant excess risks for all cancers and leukaemia, as well as increased risk of lymphoma (odds ratio 5.14, 1.27 to 20.78) on the basis of small numbers.

Conclusions: Although the results for lymphoma need to be replicated, all of the findings indicate possible risks of cancer from radiation at doses lower than those associated with commonly used procedures such as computed tomography scans, suggesting the need for cautious use of diagnostic radiation imaging procedures to the abdomen/pelvis of the mother during pregnancy and in children at very young ages.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Eligibility, participation, and inclusion in analysis of early life exposure to diagnostic radiation and ultrasound scans in UK Childhood Cancer Study
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig1: Eligibility, participation, and inclusion in analysis of early life exposure to diagnostic radiation and ultrasound scans in UK Childhood Cancer Study

Mentions: The figure shows details of participation; 4429 case families and 11 977 control families were eligible, and 3834 case families and 7619 control families were interviewed. Two eligible participating controls were targeted for each case. If one eligible control refused interview, another eligible control was chosen until two controls participated. Information collected from parents or guardians of participating children included social, occupational, and medical histories of children and parents, as well as a detailed evaluation of exposure to both non-ionising radiation (extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields) and ionising radiation. Eighty-seven per cent of eligible case families were interviewed, compared with 64% of eligible control families. Differences in the level of participation in interviews by case and control status were mainly due to differences in maternal refusal rates.


Early life exposure to diagnostic radiation and ultrasound scans and risk of childhood cancer: case-control study.

Rajaraman P, Simpson J, Neta G, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Ansell P, Linet MS, Ron E, Roman E - BMJ (2011)

Eligibility, participation, and inclusion in analysis of early life exposure to diagnostic radiation and ultrasound scans in UK Childhood Cancer Study
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3037470&req=5

fig1: Eligibility, participation, and inclusion in analysis of early life exposure to diagnostic radiation and ultrasound scans in UK Childhood Cancer Study
Mentions: The figure shows details of participation; 4429 case families and 11 977 control families were eligible, and 3834 case families and 7619 control families were interviewed. Two eligible participating controls were targeted for each case. If one eligible control refused interview, another eligible control was chosen until two controls participated. Information collected from parents or guardians of participating children included social, occupational, and medical histories of children and parents, as well as a detailed evaluation of exposure to both non-ionising radiation (extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields) and ionising radiation. Eighty-seven per cent of eligible case families were interviewed, compared with 64% of eligible control families. Differences in the level of participation in interviews by case and control status were mainly due to differences in maternal refusal rates.

Bottom Line: Some indication existed of a slight increase in risk after in utero exposure to x rays for all cancers (odds ratio 1.l4, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 1.45) and leukaemia (1.36, 0.91 to 2.02), but this was not statistically significant.Exposure to diagnostic x rays in early infancy (0-100 days) was associated with small, non-significant excess risks for all cancers and leukaemia, as well as increased risk of lymphoma (odds ratio 5.14, 1.27 to 20.78) on the basis of small numbers.Although the results for lymphoma need to be replicated, all of the findings indicate possible risks of cancer from radiation at doses lower than those associated with commonly used procedures such as computed tomography scans, suggesting the need for cautious use of diagnostic radiation imaging procedures to the abdomen/pelvis of the mother during pregnancy and in children at very young ages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892-7238, USA. rajarama@mail.nih.gov

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine childhood cancer risks associated with exposure to diagnostic radiation and ultrasound scans in utero and in early infancy (age 0-100 days).

Design: Case-control study.

Setting: England and Wales.

Participants: 2690 childhood cancer cases and 4858 age, sex, and region matched controls from the United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS), born 1976-96.

Main outcome measures: Risk of all childhood cancer, leukaemia, lymphoma, and central nervous system tumours, measured by odds ratios.

Results: Logistic regression models conditioned on matching factors, with adjustment for maternal age and child's birth weight, showed no evidence of increased risk of childhood cancer with in utero exposure to ultrasound scans. Some indication existed of a slight increase in risk after in utero exposure to x rays for all cancers (odds ratio 1.l4, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 1.45) and leukaemia (1.36, 0.91 to 2.02), but this was not statistically significant. Exposure to diagnostic x rays in early infancy (0-100 days) was associated with small, non-significant excess risks for all cancers and leukaemia, as well as increased risk of lymphoma (odds ratio 5.14, 1.27 to 20.78) on the basis of small numbers.

Conclusions: Although the results for lymphoma need to be replicated, all of the findings indicate possible risks of cancer from radiation at doses lower than those associated with commonly used procedures such as computed tomography scans, suggesting the need for cautious use of diagnostic radiation imaging procedures to the abdomen/pelvis of the mother during pregnancy and in children at very young ages.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus