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Reference data for the Ruff Figural Fluency Test stratified by age and educational level.

Izaks GJ, Joosten H, Koerts J, Gansevoort RT, Slaets JP - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: All tests were analyzed by two independent examiners and subsequently three measures were calculated: number of unique designs, number of perseverative errors and error ratio.This was not only observed in older persons but also in young and middle-aged persons.Reference data for the three RFFT measures are presented in groups of five years of age ranging from 35-39 years to 75 years or older.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Center for Geriatric Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. g.j.izaks@int.umcg.nl

ABSTRACT
The Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) was developed to avoid the difficulties that were encountered in earlier tests of figural fluency. Although the test characteristics of the RFFT seem to be good and it is a valuable addition to neuropsychological assessments, reference data are still scarce. To this aim, we required 2,404 community dwelling persons in Groningen, The Netherlands to perform the RFFT. All 1,651 persons with a complete RFFT and known educational level formed the reference sample. Their age ranged from 35 to 82 years and their educational level from primary school to university grade. Ninety-six percent of the persons were of Western European descent. All tests were analyzed by two independent examiners and subsequently three measures were calculated: number of unique designs, number of perseverative errors and error ratio. The main finding was that performance on the RFFT was dependent on age and educational level. This was not only observed in older persons but also in young and middle-aged persons. Reference data for the three RFFT measures are presented in groups of five years of age ranging from 35-39 years to 75 years or older.

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Median error ratio dependent on age and educational level.*, only reported for persons with a high educational level as the number of persons with a low educational level was small in this age group. Upper bars represent 75th percentile, lower bars represent 25th percentile. The difference between low and high educational level was statistically significant (p<0.001).
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pone-0017045-g003: Median error ratio dependent on age and educational level.*, only reported for persons with a high educational level as the number of persons with a low educational level was small in this age group. Upper bars represent 75th percentile, lower bars represent 25th percentile. The difference between low and high educational level was statistically significant (p<0.001).

Mentions: The distribution of the error ratio was also strongly skewed to the right. The median error ratio (IQR) was 0.10 (0.05–0.20). The error ratio was different between age groups and the median error ratio gradually increased from 0.06 at age 35–39 years to 0.13 at age 75 years and older (p<0.001) (Figure 3). Furthermore, there was a difference between educational levels. The median error ratio (IQR) was 0.13 (0.07 to 0.25) in persons with a low educational level and 0.09 (0.05 to 0.17) in person with a high educational level (p<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between men and women: median error ratio (IQR), 0.10 (0.05 to 0.18) and 0.11 (0.5 to 0.21), respectively (p = 0.04). Reference data stratified for age and educational level are presented in Table 5 and Table 6.


Reference data for the Ruff Figural Fluency Test stratified by age and educational level.

Izaks GJ, Joosten H, Koerts J, Gansevoort RT, Slaets JP - PLoS ONE (2011)

Median error ratio dependent on age and educational level.*, only reported for persons with a high educational level as the number of persons with a low educational level was small in this age group. Upper bars represent 75th percentile, lower bars represent 25th percentile. The difference between low and high educational level was statistically significant (p<0.001).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3037396&req=5

pone-0017045-g003: Median error ratio dependent on age and educational level.*, only reported for persons with a high educational level as the number of persons with a low educational level was small in this age group. Upper bars represent 75th percentile, lower bars represent 25th percentile. The difference between low and high educational level was statistically significant (p<0.001).
Mentions: The distribution of the error ratio was also strongly skewed to the right. The median error ratio (IQR) was 0.10 (0.05–0.20). The error ratio was different between age groups and the median error ratio gradually increased from 0.06 at age 35–39 years to 0.13 at age 75 years and older (p<0.001) (Figure 3). Furthermore, there was a difference between educational levels. The median error ratio (IQR) was 0.13 (0.07 to 0.25) in persons with a low educational level and 0.09 (0.05 to 0.17) in person with a high educational level (p<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between men and women: median error ratio (IQR), 0.10 (0.05 to 0.18) and 0.11 (0.5 to 0.21), respectively (p = 0.04). Reference data stratified for age and educational level are presented in Table 5 and Table 6.

Bottom Line: All tests were analyzed by two independent examiners and subsequently three measures were calculated: number of unique designs, number of perseverative errors and error ratio.This was not only observed in older persons but also in young and middle-aged persons.Reference data for the three RFFT measures are presented in groups of five years of age ranging from 35-39 years to 75 years or older.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Center for Geriatric Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. g.j.izaks@int.umcg.nl

ABSTRACT
The Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) was developed to avoid the difficulties that were encountered in earlier tests of figural fluency. Although the test characteristics of the RFFT seem to be good and it is a valuable addition to neuropsychological assessments, reference data are still scarce. To this aim, we required 2,404 community dwelling persons in Groningen, The Netherlands to perform the RFFT. All 1,651 persons with a complete RFFT and known educational level formed the reference sample. Their age ranged from 35 to 82 years and their educational level from primary school to university grade. Ninety-six percent of the persons were of Western European descent. All tests were analyzed by two independent examiners and subsequently three measures were calculated: number of unique designs, number of perseverative errors and error ratio. The main finding was that performance on the RFFT was dependent on age and educational level. This was not only observed in older persons but also in young and middle-aged persons. Reference data for the three RFFT measures are presented in groups of five years of age ranging from 35-39 years to 75 years or older.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus