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A putative gene cluster from a Lyngbya wollei bloom that encodes paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis.

Mihali TK, Carmichael WW, Neilan BA - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: Here we report the isolation, sequencing, annotation, and predicted pathway of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei.The gene cluster spans 36 kb and encodes enzymes for the biosynthesis and export of the toxins.These findings will enable the creation of toxin probes, for water monitoring purposes, as well as proof-of-concept for the combinatorial biosynthesis of these natural occurring alkaloids for the production of novel, biologically active compounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Saxitoxin and its analogs cause the paralytic shellfish-poisoning syndrome, adversely affecting human health and coastal shellfish industries worldwide. Here we report the isolation, sequencing, annotation, and predicted pathway of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei. The gene cluster spans 36 kb and encodes enzymes for the biosynthesis and export of the toxins. The Lyngbya wollei saxitoxin gene cluster differs from previously identified saxitoxin clusters as it contains genes that are unique to this cluster, whereby the carbamoyltransferase is truncated and replaced by an acyltransferase, explaining the unique toxin profile presented by Lyngbya wollei. These findings will enable the creation of toxin probes, for water monitoring purposes, as well as proof-of-concept for the combinatorial biosynthesis of these natural occurring alkaloids for the production of novel, biologically active compounds.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Organization of the PST biosynthesis cluster in Lyngbya wollei, scale indicates gene size in base pairs, direction of arrowed boxes indicates direction of transcription.
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pone-0014657-g002: Organization of the PST biosynthesis cluster in Lyngbya wollei, scale indicates gene size in base pairs, direction of arrowed boxes indicates direction of transcription.

Mentions: Using the degenerate PCR described, a single amplicon of 400 bp was amplified, cloned and sequenced from L. wollei genomic DNA. These gene fragments represented good candidates for saxitoxin biosynthesis genes due to their homology to the saxitoxin genes (sxtT and sxtH) previously identified in C. raciborskii T3 [21]. Numerous rounds of gene-walking outwards from these known regions revealed a SXT gene cluster in L. wollei spanning approximately 36 kb (Figure 2) and encoding thirty-one genes predicted to be involved in the biosynthesis and export of the these neurotoxins (Table 1). Homology analysis of the regions flanking the PST biosynthetic cluster confirmed that the sequences obtained are most related to Lyngbya species.


A putative gene cluster from a Lyngbya wollei bloom that encodes paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis.

Mihali TK, Carmichael WW, Neilan BA - PLoS ONE (2011)

Organization of the PST biosynthesis cluster in Lyngbya wollei, scale indicates gene size in base pairs, direction of arrowed boxes indicates direction of transcription.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3037375&req=5

pone-0014657-g002: Organization of the PST biosynthesis cluster in Lyngbya wollei, scale indicates gene size in base pairs, direction of arrowed boxes indicates direction of transcription.
Mentions: Using the degenerate PCR described, a single amplicon of 400 bp was amplified, cloned and sequenced from L. wollei genomic DNA. These gene fragments represented good candidates for saxitoxin biosynthesis genes due to their homology to the saxitoxin genes (sxtT and sxtH) previously identified in C. raciborskii T3 [21]. Numerous rounds of gene-walking outwards from these known regions revealed a SXT gene cluster in L. wollei spanning approximately 36 kb (Figure 2) and encoding thirty-one genes predicted to be involved in the biosynthesis and export of the these neurotoxins (Table 1). Homology analysis of the regions flanking the PST biosynthetic cluster confirmed that the sequences obtained are most related to Lyngbya species.

Bottom Line: Here we report the isolation, sequencing, annotation, and predicted pathway of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei.The gene cluster spans 36 kb and encodes enzymes for the biosynthesis and export of the toxins.These findings will enable the creation of toxin probes, for water monitoring purposes, as well as proof-of-concept for the combinatorial biosynthesis of these natural occurring alkaloids for the production of novel, biologically active compounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Saxitoxin and its analogs cause the paralytic shellfish-poisoning syndrome, adversely affecting human health and coastal shellfish industries worldwide. Here we report the isolation, sequencing, annotation, and predicted pathway of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei. The gene cluster spans 36 kb and encodes enzymes for the biosynthesis and export of the toxins. The Lyngbya wollei saxitoxin gene cluster differs from previously identified saxitoxin clusters as it contains genes that are unique to this cluster, whereby the carbamoyltransferase is truncated and replaced by an acyltransferase, explaining the unique toxin profile presented by Lyngbya wollei. These findings will enable the creation of toxin probes, for water monitoring purposes, as well as proof-of-concept for the combinatorial biosynthesis of these natural occurring alkaloids for the production of novel, biologically active compounds.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus