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Transnational history of medicine after 1950: framing and interrogation from psychiatric journals.

Burnham JC - Med Hist (2011)

Bottom Line: Some quantitative sampling of psychiatric journals provides one framework for understanding the history of psychiatry and, to some extent, the history of medicine in general in the twentieth century.After World War II, extreme national isolation of psychiatric communities gave way to substantial transnationalisation, especially in the 1980s, when a remarkable switch to English-language communication became obvious.Various psychiatric communities used the new universal language, not so much as victims of Americanisation, as to gain general professional recognition and to participate in and adapt to modernisation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Professor John C. Burnham, Ohio State University, Department of History , 106 Dulles Hall, 230 West 17th Avenue, Columbus OH, 43210, USA . Email: burnham.2@osu.edu.

ABSTRACT
Communication amongst medical specialists helps display the tensions between localism and transnationalisation. Some quantitative sampling of psychiatric journals provides one framework for understanding the history of psychiatry and, to some extent, the history of medicine in general in the twentieth century. After World War II, extreme national isolation of psychiatric communities gave way to substantial transnationalisation, especially in the 1980s, when a remarkable switch to English-language communication became obvious. Various psychiatric communities used the new universal language, not so much as victims of Americanisation, as to gain general professional recognition and to participate in and adapt to modernisation.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Percentage of articles published in sample years in the Journal of Mental Science/British Journal of Psychiatry from 1951 to 1981 in which the references in the articles were all, or virtually all, in the English Language.
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fig5: Percentage of articles published in sample years in the Journal of Mental Science/British Journal of Psychiatry from 1951 to 1981 in which the references in the articles were all, or virtually all, in the English Language.

Mentions: The leading UK journal, the Journal of Mental Science, renamed the British Journal of Psychiatry in 1963, shows that the mid-century British community operated, in part, as a mediator between Anglo-American psychiatrists and those who were not part of that transatlantic community. In 1951, sixty-three per cent of the authors included significant (>ten to fifteen per cent) non-British representation in their references. For twenty years, that level continued. Then in the 1981 sample, it increased to eighty-one per cent. This citing of some foreign sources was deceiving, however. Most of the ‘foreign’ citations were from the US and, of course, in English. They therefore did not represent Continental or other input. In thirty years, 1951–81, the percentage of British Journal of Psychiatry articles with virtually or completely all-English-language foreign items went, in my sample, from thirty-seven to, eventually, sixty-seven per cent (this last was the count in 1981—Graph 5).Graph 5


Transnational history of medicine after 1950: framing and interrogation from psychiatric journals.

Burnham JC - Med Hist (2011)

Percentage of articles published in sample years in the Journal of Mental Science/British Journal of Psychiatry from 1951 to 1981 in which the references in the articles were all, or virtually all, in the English Language.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3037212&req=5

fig5: Percentage of articles published in sample years in the Journal of Mental Science/British Journal of Psychiatry from 1951 to 1981 in which the references in the articles were all, or virtually all, in the English Language.
Mentions: The leading UK journal, the Journal of Mental Science, renamed the British Journal of Psychiatry in 1963, shows that the mid-century British community operated, in part, as a mediator between Anglo-American psychiatrists and those who were not part of that transatlantic community. In 1951, sixty-three per cent of the authors included significant (>ten to fifteen per cent) non-British representation in their references. For twenty years, that level continued. Then in the 1981 sample, it increased to eighty-one per cent. This citing of some foreign sources was deceiving, however. Most of the ‘foreign’ citations were from the US and, of course, in English. They therefore did not represent Continental or other input. In thirty years, 1951–81, the percentage of British Journal of Psychiatry articles with virtually or completely all-English-language foreign items went, in my sample, from thirty-seven to, eventually, sixty-seven per cent (this last was the count in 1981—Graph 5).Graph 5

Bottom Line: Some quantitative sampling of psychiatric journals provides one framework for understanding the history of psychiatry and, to some extent, the history of medicine in general in the twentieth century.After World War II, extreme national isolation of psychiatric communities gave way to substantial transnationalisation, especially in the 1980s, when a remarkable switch to English-language communication became obvious.Various psychiatric communities used the new universal language, not so much as victims of Americanisation, as to gain general professional recognition and to participate in and adapt to modernisation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Professor John C. Burnham, Ohio State University, Department of History , 106 Dulles Hall, 230 West 17th Avenue, Columbus OH, 43210, USA . Email: burnham.2@osu.edu.

ABSTRACT
Communication amongst medical specialists helps display the tensions between localism and transnationalisation. Some quantitative sampling of psychiatric journals provides one framework for understanding the history of psychiatry and, to some extent, the history of medicine in general in the twentieth century. After World War II, extreme national isolation of psychiatric communities gave way to substantial transnationalisation, especially in the 1980s, when a remarkable switch to English-language communication became obvious. Various psychiatric communities used the new universal language, not so much as victims of Americanisation, as to gain general professional recognition and to participate in and adapt to modernisation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus