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Coral larvae under ocean acidification: survival, metabolism, and metamorphosis.

Nakamura M, Ohki S, Suzuki A, Sakai K - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: Although reduced growth of juvenile corals in acidified seawater has been reported, coral larvae have been reported to demonstrate some level of tolerance to reduced pH.Larval metamorphosis was also observed, confirming that successful recruitment is impaired when metamorphosis is disrupted, despite larval survival.These results imply that acidified seawater impacts larval physiology, suggesting that suppressed metabolism and metamorphosis may alter the dispersal potential of larvae and subsequently reduce the resilience of coral communities in the near future as the ocean pH decreases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sesoko Station, Tropical Biosphere Research Center, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan. m_coral29@yahoo.co.jp

ABSTRACT
Ocean acidification may negatively impact the early life stages of some marine invertebrates including corals. Although reduced growth of juvenile corals in acidified seawater has been reported, coral larvae have been reported to demonstrate some level of tolerance to reduced pH. We hypothesize that the observed tolerance of coral larvae to low pH may be partly explained by reduced metabolic rates in acidified seawater because both calcifying and non-calcifying marine invertebrates could show metabolic depression under reduced pH in order to enhance their survival. In this study, after 3-d and 7-d exposure to three different pH levels (8.0, 7.6, and 7.3), we found that the oxygen consumption of Acropora digitifera larvae tended to be suppressed with reduced pH, although a statistically significant difference was not observed between pH conditions. Larval metamorphosis was also observed, confirming that successful recruitment is impaired when metamorphosis is disrupted, despite larval survival. Results also showed that the metamorphosis rate significantly decreased under acidified seawater conditions after both short (2 h) and long (7 d) term exposure. These results imply that acidified seawater impacts larval physiology, suggesting that suppressed metabolism and metamorphosis may alter the dispersal potential of larvae and subsequently reduce the resilience of coral communities in the near future as the ocean pH decreases.

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Metamorphosis rate of larvae of Acropora digitifera after seven-day exposure to three different pH conditions.Bars indicate means and standard errors (n = 9).
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pone-0014521-g005: Metamorphosis rate of larvae of Acropora digitifera after seven-day exposure to three different pH conditions.Bars indicate means and standard errors (n = 9).

Mentions: Reduced metamorphosis rates were also observed in the 7 d exposure experiment (Fig. 5). The metamorphosis rate of A. digitifera significantly decreased with reduced pH (ANOVA, F2, 24 = 29.260, p<0.001). It was larger under control conditions than under acidified seawater (pH 8.0, 25.0±0.0%; pH 7.6, 4.2±2.4%; pH 7.3, 2.7±2.7%) (Tukey HSD test, p<0.05).


Coral larvae under ocean acidification: survival, metabolism, and metamorphosis.

Nakamura M, Ohki S, Suzuki A, Sakai K - PLoS ONE (2011)

Metamorphosis rate of larvae of Acropora digitifera after seven-day exposure to three different pH conditions.Bars indicate means and standard errors (n = 9).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3022010&req=5

pone-0014521-g005: Metamorphosis rate of larvae of Acropora digitifera after seven-day exposure to three different pH conditions.Bars indicate means and standard errors (n = 9).
Mentions: Reduced metamorphosis rates were also observed in the 7 d exposure experiment (Fig. 5). The metamorphosis rate of A. digitifera significantly decreased with reduced pH (ANOVA, F2, 24 = 29.260, p<0.001). It was larger under control conditions than under acidified seawater (pH 8.0, 25.0±0.0%; pH 7.6, 4.2±2.4%; pH 7.3, 2.7±2.7%) (Tukey HSD test, p<0.05).

Bottom Line: Although reduced growth of juvenile corals in acidified seawater has been reported, coral larvae have been reported to demonstrate some level of tolerance to reduced pH.Larval metamorphosis was also observed, confirming that successful recruitment is impaired when metamorphosis is disrupted, despite larval survival.These results imply that acidified seawater impacts larval physiology, suggesting that suppressed metabolism and metamorphosis may alter the dispersal potential of larvae and subsequently reduce the resilience of coral communities in the near future as the ocean pH decreases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sesoko Station, Tropical Biosphere Research Center, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan. m_coral29@yahoo.co.jp

ABSTRACT
Ocean acidification may negatively impact the early life stages of some marine invertebrates including corals. Although reduced growth of juvenile corals in acidified seawater has been reported, coral larvae have been reported to demonstrate some level of tolerance to reduced pH. We hypothesize that the observed tolerance of coral larvae to low pH may be partly explained by reduced metabolic rates in acidified seawater because both calcifying and non-calcifying marine invertebrates could show metabolic depression under reduced pH in order to enhance their survival. In this study, after 3-d and 7-d exposure to three different pH levels (8.0, 7.6, and 7.3), we found that the oxygen consumption of Acropora digitifera larvae tended to be suppressed with reduced pH, although a statistically significant difference was not observed between pH conditions. Larval metamorphosis was also observed, confirming that successful recruitment is impaired when metamorphosis is disrupted, despite larval survival. Results also showed that the metamorphosis rate significantly decreased under acidified seawater conditions after both short (2 h) and long (7 d) term exposure. These results imply that acidified seawater impacts larval physiology, suggesting that suppressed metabolism and metamorphosis may alter the dispersal potential of larvae and subsequently reduce the resilience of coral communities in the near future as the ocean pH decreases.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus