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Targeted regeneration of bone in the osteoporotic human femur.

Poole KE, Treece GM, Ridgway GR, Mayhew PM, Borggrefe J, Gee AH - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: We have recently developed image processing techniques for measuring the cortical thicknesses of skeletal structures in vivo, with resolution surpassing that of the underlying computed tomography system.The resulting thickness maps can be analysed across cohorts by statistical parametric mapping.Applying these methods to the proximal femurs of osteoporotic women, we discover targeted and apparently synergistic effects of pharmaceutical osteoporosis therapy and habitual mechanical load in enhancing bone thickness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. kp254@nhs.net

ABSTRACT
We have recently developed image processing techniques for measuring the cortical thicknesses of skeletal structures in vivo, with resolution surpassing that of the underlying computed tomography system. The resulting thickness maps can be analysed across cohorts by statistical parametric mapping. Applying these methods to the proximal femurs of osteoporotic women, we discover targeted and apparently synergistic effects of pharmaceutical osteoporosis therapy and habitual mechanical load in enhancing bone thickness.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Visualising the femur in health and trauma.(a) A cortical thickness map of a healthy adult male femur with thick (blue/green) cortex at sites of high load during walking, (b) cortical and trabecular bone. Typical fractures in the (c) femoral neck and (d) inter-trochanteric regions.
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pone-0016190-g001: Visualising the femur in health and trauma.(a) A cortical thickness map of a healthy adult male femur with thick (blue/green) cortex at sites of high load during walking, (b) cortical and trabecular bone. Typical fractures in the (c) femoral neck and (d) inter-trochanteric regions.

Mentions: Further insight has been hampered by the limited resolution of whole-body computed tomography (CT) systems and the perceived futility of using such systems to pinpoint tiny changes in cortical bone distribution. Now, however, a new CT image processing technique [9] allows us to display cortical thickness as a colour map over the bone surface (Fig. 1a), with several thousand independent measurements across each proximal femur and sufficient sensitivity to detect even small changes (∼30 microns) when expressed systematically by a suitably sized cohort. By making reasonable assumptions, that the actual cortical density does not vary dramatically for a given subject at a given time, and that the imaging blur is roughly Gaussian in shape, thickness can be measured to super-resolution accuracy, except at the femoral head where the proximity of the acetabulum is problematic. The methodology has been validated against gold standard thickness measurements obtained from micro-CT scans of cadaveric femurs [9].


Targeted regeneration of bone in the osteoporotic human femur.

Poole KE, Treece GM, Ridgway GR, Mayhew PM, Borggrefe J, Gee AH - PLoS ONE (2011)

Visualising the femur in health and trauma.(a) A cortical thickness map of a healthy adult male femur with thick (blue/green) cortex at sites of high load during walking, (b) cortical and trabecular bone. Typical fractures in the (c) femoral neck and (d) inter-trochanteric regions.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3021547&req=5

pone-0016190-g001: Visualising the femur in health and trauma.(a) A cortical thickness map of a healthy adult male femur with thick (blue/green) cortex at sites of high load during walking, (b) cortical and trabecular bone. Typical fractures in the (c) femoral neck and (d) inter-trochanteric regions.
Mentions: Further insight has been hampered by the limited resolution of whole-body computed tomography (CT) systems and the perceived futility of using such systems to pinpoint tiny changes in cortical bone distribution. Now, however, a new CT image processing technique [9] allows us to display cortical thickness as a colour map over the bone surface (Fig. 1a), with several thousand independent measurements across each proximal femur and sufficient sensitivity to detect even small changes (∼30 microns) when expressed systematically by a suitably sized cohort. By making reasonable assumptions, that the actual cortical density does not vary dramatically for a given subject at a given time, and that the imaging blur is roughly Gaussian in shape, thickness can be measured to super-resolution accuracy, except at the femoral head where the proximity of the acetabulum is problematic. The methodology has been validated against gold standard thickness measurements obtained from micro-CT scans of cadaveric femurs [9].

Bottom Line: We have recently developed image processing techniques for measuring the cortical thicknesses of skeletal structures in vivo, with resolution surpassing that of the underlying computed tomography system.The resulting thickness maps can be analysed across cohorts by statistical parametric mapping.Applying these methods to the proximal femurs of osteoporotic women, we discover targeted and apparently synergistic effects of pharmaceutical osteoporosis therapy and habitual mechanical load in enhancing bone thickness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. kp254@nhs.net

ABSTRACT
We have recently developed image processing techniques for measuring the cortical thicknesses of skeletal structures in vivo, with resolution surpassing that of the underlying computed tomography system. The resulting thickness maps can be analysed across cohorts by statistical parametric mapping. Applying these methods to the proximal femurs of osteoporotic women, we discover targeted and apparently synergistic effects of pharmaceutical osteoporosis therapy and habitual mechanical load in enhancing bone thickness.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus