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Electrochemical disinfection of dental implants--a proof of concept.

Mohn D, Zehnder M, Stark WJ, Imfeld T - PLoS ONE (2011)

Bottom Line: Peri-implantitis has gained significant clinical attention in recent years.Our hypothesis was that electrolysis can reduce viable counts of adhering bacteria, and that this reduction should be greater if active oxidative species are generated.This laboratory study shows that electrochemical treatment may provide access to a new way to decontaminate dental implants in situ.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Peri-implantitis has gained significant clinical attention in recent years. This disease is an inflammatory reaction to microorganisms around dental implants. Due to the limited accessibility, non-invasive antimicrobial strategies are of high interest. An unexpected approach to implant disinfection may evolve from electrolysis. Given the electrical conductivity of titanium implants, alkalinity or active oxidants can be generated in body fluids. We investigated the use of dental titanium implants as electrodes for the local generation of disinfectants. Our hypothesis was that electrolysis can reduce viable counts of adhering bacteria, and that this reduction should be greater if active oxidative species are generated.

Methodology/principal findings: As model systems, dental implants, covered with a mono-species biofilm of Escherichia coli C43, were placed in photographic gelatin prepared with physiological saline. Implants were treated by a continuous current of 0-10 mA for 15 minutes. The reduction of viable counts was investigated on cathodes and anodes. In separate experiments, the local change in pH was visualized using color indicators embedded in the gelatin. Oxidative species were qualitatively detected by potassium iodide-starch paper. The in situ generated alkaline environment around cathodic implants caused a reduction of up to 2 orders of magnitude in viable E. coli counts. On anodic implants, in contrast to cathodic counterparts, oxidative species were detected. Here, a current of merely 7.5 mA caused complete kill of the bacteria.

Conclusions/significance: This laboratory study shows that electrochemical treatment may provide access to a new way to decontaminate dental implants in situ.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Reduction of E. Coli adhered on dental implants.Viable E. coli counts were reduced on implants after current treatment for 15 minutes (mean log10 CFU (colony-forming units) values (N = 3) and standard deviation). Pronounced differences arised for anodic (oxidative environment) and cathodic (alkaline environment) implants. A full disinfection could be obtained if an implant was used as anode and at a current of at least 7.5 mA. Same capital letters above data sets indicate no statistically significance (p>0.05).
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pone-0016157-g002: Reduction of E. Coli adhered on dental implants.Viable E. coli counts were reduced on implants after current treatment for 15 minutes (mean log10 CFU (colony-forming units) values (N = 3) and standard deviation). Pronounced differences arised for anodic (oxidative environment) and cathodic (alkaline environment) implants. A full disinfection could be obtained if an implant was used as anode and at a current of at least 7.5 mA. Same capital letters above data sets indicate no statistically significance (p>0.05).

Mentions: Standard dental implants served as electrodes for the electrolysis of physiological saline around the dental implants and in the simulated soft tissue (gelatin). In contrast to the positive control treatment, i.e. when no current applied, both anode and cathode electrodes induced a reduction of bacterial counts for different currents during the 15 minutes treatment (Fig. 2). At the cathode, viable bacteria decreased with increasing current. At the maximum current of 10 mA, viable bacteria were reduced by 2 orders of magnitude (99% in total counts) compared to the positive control. The difference in log10 CFU was significant (p<0.05) compared to the control treatment already with a continuous current of 2 mA. The electrochemical disinfection at the anode caused a statistically similar reduction of E. coli counts at 2 and 5 mA. A treatment with 7.5 mA or 10 mA resulted in a complete kill of all viable bacteria and complete disinfection (Fig. 2, p<0.05 compared to log10 CFU values at the cathode and implants with no current applied).


Electrochemical disinfection of dental implants--a proof of concept.

Mohn D, Zehnder M, Stark WJ, Imfeld T - PLoS ONE (2011)

Reduction of E. Coli adhered on dental implants.Viable E. coli counts were reduced on implants after current treatment for 15 minutes (mean log10 CFU (colony-forming units) values (N = 3) and standard deviation). Pronounced differences arised for anodic (oxidative environment) and cathodic (alkaline environment) implants. A full disinfection could be obtained if an implant was used as anode and at a current of at least 7.5 mA. Same capital letters above data sets indicate no statistically significance (p>0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3021527&req=5

pone-0016157-g002: Reduction of E. Coli adhered on dental implants.Viable E. coli counts were reduced on implants after current treatment for 15 minutes (mean log10 CFU (colony-forming units) values (N = 3) and standard deviation). Pronounced differences arised for anodic (oxidative environment) and cathodic (alkaline environment) implants. A full disinfection could be obtained if an implant was used as anode and at a current of at least 7.5 mA. Same capital letters above data sets indicate no statistically significance (p>0.05).
Mentions: Standard dental implants served as electrodes for the electrolysis of physiological saline around the dental implants and in the simulated soft tissue (gelatin). In contrast to the positive control treatment, i.e. when no current applied, both anode and cathode electrodes induced a reduction of bacterial counts for different currents during the 15 minutes treatment (Fig. 2). At the cathode, viable bacteria decreased with increasing current. At the maximum current of 10 mA, viable bacteria were reduced by 2 orders of magnitude (99% in total counts) compared to the positive control. The difference in log10 CFU was significant (p<0.05) compared to the control treatment already with a continuous current of 2 mA. The electrochemical disinfection at the anode caused a statistically similar reduction of E. coli counts at 2 and 5 mA. A treatment with 7.5 mA or 10 mA resulted in a complete kill of all viable bacteria and complete disinfection (Fig. 2, p<0.05 compared to log10 CFU values at the cathode and implants with no current applied).

Bottom Line: Peri-implantitis has gained significant clinical attention in recent years.Our hypothesis was that electrolysis can reduce viable counts of adhering bacteria, and that this reduction should be greater if active oxidative species are generated.This laboratory study shows that electrochemical treatment may provide access to a new way to decontaminate dental implants in situ.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Peri-implantitis has gained significant clinical attention in recent years. This disease is an inflammatory reaction to microorganisms around dental implants. Due to the limited accessibility, non-invasive antimicrobial strategies are of high interest. An unexpected approach to implant disinfection may evolve from electrolysis. Given the electrical conductivity of titanium implants, alkalinity or active oxidants can be generated in body fluids. We investigated the use of dental titanium implants as electrodes for the local generation of disinfectants. Our hypothesis was that electrolysis can reduce viable counts of adhering bacteria, and that this reduction should be greater if active oxidative species are generated.

Methodology/principal findings: As model systems, dental implants, covered with a mono-species biofilm of Escherichia coli C43, were placed in photographic gelatin prepared with physiological saline. Implants were treated by a continuous current of 0-10 mA for 15 minutes. The reduction of viable counts was investigated on cathodes and anodes. In separate experiments, the local change in pH was visualized using color indicators embedded in the gelatin. Oxidative species were qualitatively detected by potassium iodide-starch paper. The in situ generated alkaline environment around cathodic implants caused a reduction of up to 2 orders of magnitude in viable E. coli counts. On anodic implants, in contrast to cathodic counterparts, oxidative species were detected. Here, a current of merely 7.5 mA caused complete kill of the bacteria.

Conclusions/significance: This laboratory study shows that electrochemical treatment may provide access to a new way to decontaminate dental implants in situ.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus