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Dramatic increases in obesity and overweight prevalence and body mass index among ethnic-immigrant and social class groups in the United States, 1976-2008.

Singh GK, Siahpush M, Hiatt RA, Timsina LR - J Community Health (2011)

Bottom Line: Overweight prevalence increased from 36.9% in 1976 to 62.0% in 2008.In 2003-2008, obesity prevalence ranged from 2.3% for recent Chinese immigrants to 31-39% for American Indians, US-born blacks, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans, and long-term Mexican and Puerto Rican immigrants.Although higher prevalence was observed for lower education, income, and occupation levels in each period, socioeconomic gradients in obesity and overweight decreased over time because of more rapid increases in prevalence among higher socioeconomic groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: US Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, 5600 Fishers Lane, Room 18-41, Rockville, MD 20857, USA. gsingh@hrsa.gov

ABSTRACT
This study examined trends in US obesity and overweight prevalence and body mass index (BMI) among 30 immigrant groups, stratified by race/ethnicity and length of immigration, and among detailed education, occupation, and income/poverty groups from 1976 to 2008. Using 1976-2008 National Health Interview Surveys, differentials in obesity, overweight, and BMI, based on self-reported height and weight, were analyzed by using disparity indices, logistic, and linear regression. The obesity prevalence for the US population aged ≥18 tripled from 8.7% in 1976 to 27.4% in 2008. Overweight prevalence increased from 36.9% in 1976 to 62.0% in 2008. During 1991-2008, obesity prevalence for US-born adults increased from 13.9 to 28.7%, while prevalence for immigrants increased from 9.5 to 20.7%. While immigrants in each ethnic group and time period had lower obesity and overweight prevalence and BMI than the US-born, immigrants' risk of obesity and overweight increased with increasing duration of residence. In 2003-2008, obesity prevalence ranged from 2.3% for recent Chinese immigrants to 31-39% for American Indians, US-born blacks, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans, and long-term Mexican and Puerto Rican immigrants. Between 1976 and 2008, the obesity prevalence more than quadrupled for those with a college education or sales occupation. Although higher prevalence was observed for lower education, income, and occupation levels in each period, socioeconomic gradients in obesity and overweight decreased over time because of more rapid increases in prevalence among higher socioeconomic groups. Continued immigrant and socioeconomic disparities in prevalence will likely have substantial impacts on future obesity trends in the US.

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Selected Socioeconomic Characteristics (%) of 30 Ethnic-Immigrant Groups, US Adults Aged 18 years and Older, 2003–2008
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Fig2: Selected Socioeconomic Characteristics (%) of 30 Ethnic-Immigrant Groups, US Adults Aged 18 years and Older, 2003–2008

Mentions: The immigrant groups varied substantially in their socioeconomic characteristics (Fig. 2). Overall, immigrants had nearly twice the poverty levels of the US-born. They were also twice as likely to be without a high school diploma as the US-born. Socioeconomic achievement levels increased with increasing duration of residence in the US. During 2003–2008, less than 6% of Mexican immigrants were college graduates, compared with 67% of recent Asian Indian immigrants. Less than 9% of Mexican immigrants were employed in professional and managerial occupations, as compared with 52% of recent Asian Indian immigrants and 53% of US-born Chinese. Poverty rates varied from a low of 5% for long-term Filipino immigrants to a high of 33% for recent Mexican immigrants.Fig. 2


Dramatic increases in obesity and overweight prevalence and body mass index among ethnic-immigrant and social class groups in the United States, 1976-2008.

Singh GK, Siahpush M, Hiatt RA, Timsina LR - J Community Health (2011)

Selected Socioeconomic Characteristics (%) of 30 Ethnic-Immigrant Groups, US Adults Aged 18 years and Older, 2003–2008
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3020302&req=5

Fig2: Selected Socioeconomic Characteristics (%) of 30 Ethnic-Immigrant Groups, US Adults Aged 18 years and Older, 2003–2008
Mentions: The immigrant groups varied substantially in their socioeconomic characteristics (Fig. 2). Overall, immigrants had nearly twice the poverty levels of the US-born. They were also twice as likely to be without a high school diploma as the US-born. Socioeconomic achievement levels increased with increasing duration of residence in the US. During 2003–2008, less than 6% of Mexican immigrants were college graduates, compared with 67% of recent Asian Indian immigrants. Less than 9% of Mexican immigrants were employed in professional and managerial occupations, as compared with 52% of recent Asian Indian immigrants and 53% of US-born Chinese. Poverty rates varied from a low of 5% for long-term Filipino immigrants to a high of 33% for recent Mexican immigrants.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Overweight prevalence increased from 36.9% in 1976 to 62.0% in 2008.In 2003-2008, obesity prevalence ranged from 2.3% for recent Chinese immigrants to 31-39% for American Indians, US-born blacks, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans, and long-term Mexican and Puerto Rican immigrants.Although higher prevalence was observed for lower education, income, and occupation levels in each period, socioeconomic gradients in obesity and overweight decreased over time because of more rapid increases in prevalence among higher socioeconomic groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: US Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, 5600 Fishers Lane, Room 18-41, Rockville, MD 20857, USA. gsingh@hrsa.gov

ABSTRACT
This study examined trends in US obesity and overweight prevalence and body mass index (BMI) among 30 immigrant groups, stratified by race/ethnicity and length of immigration, and among detailed education, occupation, and income/poverty groups from 1976 to 2008. Using 1976-2008 National Health Interview Surveys, differentials in obesity, overweight, and BMI, based on self-reported height and weight, were analyzed by using disparity indices, logistic, and linear regression. The obesity prevalence for the US population aged ≥18 tripled from 8.7% in 1976 to 27.4% in 2008. Overweight prevalence increased from 36.9% in 1976 to 62.0% in 2008. During 1991-2008, obesity prevalence for US-born adults increased from 13.9 to 28.7%, while prevalence for immigrants increased from 9.5 to 20.7%. While immigrants in each ethnic group and time period had lower obesity and overweight prevalence and BMI than the US-born, immigrants' risk of obesity and overweight increased with increasing duration of residence. In 2003-2008, obesity prevalence ranged from 2.3% for recent Chinese immigrants to 31-39% for American Indians, US-born blacks, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans, and long-term Mexican and Puerto Rican immigrants. Between 1976 and 2008, the obesity prevalence more than quadrupled for those with a college education or sales occupation. Although higher prevalence was observed for lower education, income, and occupation levels in each period, socioeconomic gradients in obesity and overweight decreased over time because of more rapid increases in prevalence among higher socioeconomic groups. Continued immigrant and socioeconomic disparities in prevalence will likely have substantial impacts on future obesity trends in the US.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus