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Sex differences in orbitofrontal gray as a partial explanation for sex differences in antisocial personality.

Raine A, Yang Y, Narr KL, Toga AW - Mol. Psychiatry (2009)

Bottom Line: APD males when compared with male controls showed an 8.7% reduction in orbitofrontal gray volume, a 17.3% reduction in middle frontal gray and a 16.1% reduction in right rectal gray.Reduced middle and orbitofrontal volumes were significantly associated with increased APD symptoms and criminal offending in both males and females.Males as a whole had reduced orbitofrontal and middle frontal gray volume when compared with females, and controlling for these brain differences reduced the gender difference in the antisocial personality/behavior by 77.3%.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Criminology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. araine@sas.upenn.edu

ABSTRACT
Attention is increasingly being given to understanding sex difference in psychopathology to better understand the etiology of disorders. This study tests the hypothesis that sex differences in ventral and middle frontal gray volume contribute to sex differences in antisocial personality disorder (APD) and crime. Participants were recruited from temporary employment agencies, consisting of normal controls, substance/alcohol-dependent controls, axis I/II psychiatric controls and individuals with APD. An independent sample of female volunteers was also recruited. Magnetic resonance imaging volumes of superior frontal, middle frontal, inferior frontal, orbital frontal and rectal gyral frontal gray matter, and dimensional scores of APD and criminal behavior were assessed. APD males when compared with male controls showed an 8.7% reduction in orbitofrontal gray volume, a 17.3% reduction in middle frontal gray and a 16.1% reduction in right rectal gray. Reduced middle and orbitofrontal volumes were significantly associated with increased APD symptoms and criminal offending in both males and females. Males as a whole had reduced orbitofrontal and middle frontal gray volume when compared with females, and controlling for these brain differences reduced the gender difference in the antisocial personality/behavior by 77.3%. Findings were not a function of psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial risk factors, head injury or trauma exposure. Findings implicate structural differences in the ventral and middle frontal gray as both a risk factor for APD and as a partial explanation for sex differences in APD.

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Coronal view (upper figure) of the frontal cortex illustrating segmentation into superior, middle, inferior, orbital, and rectal sub-regions, and a three-dimensional view (lower figure) illustrating the percentage volume reduction (or increase) in those with Antisocial Personality Disorder compared to normal controls. Significant volume reductions in APDs are coded in red.
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Figure 2: Coronal view (upper figure) of the frontal cortex illustrating segmentation into superior, middle, inferior, orbital, and rectal sub-regions, and a three-dimensional view (lower figure) illustrating the percentage volume reduction (or increase) in those with Antisocial Personality Disorder compared to normal controls. Significant volume reductions in APDs are coded in red.

Mentions: Gray volumes for all three groups across regions and hemispheres are illustrated in Figure 1. Males with APD showed significant reductions in orbito-frontal, middle frontal gray, and rectal gyral gray, but not white, volumes (see Figure 2). A repeated measures MANOVA on gray matter showed a significant group x region interaction (F (8,134) = 4.63, p < .0001, eta2 = .21). A breakdown of this interaction revealed significant main group effects for orbito-frontal gray, F (2,69) = 4.36, p = .015, eta2 = .115, middle frontal gray, F (2,69) = 6.92, p = .002, eta2 = .167, but not for superior (p = .186), inferior (p = .173), or rectal gyral (p = .131) frontal sites. APDs had significantly reduced orbitofrontal volumes compared to both Normal Controls (t = 3.0, df = 46, p = .004) and Substance Use Controls (t = 2.48, df = 40, p = .017), significantly reduced middle frontal volumes compared to both Normal Controls (t = 3.62, df = 46, p = .001) and Substance Use Controls (t = 2.81, df = 40, p = .008), and marginally significantly reduced rectal gyral volumes compared to Normal Controls (t = 1.93, df = 40, p = .06) and Substance Use Controls (t = 1.82, df = 40, p = .08). Groups did not differ on either whole brain volume, F (2,69) = 0.91, p = .41, or prefrontal white matter, F(2,69) = 0.64, p = .53.


Sex differences in orbitofrontal gray as a partial explanation for sex differences in antisocial personality.

Raine A, Yang Y, Narr KL, Toga AW - Mol. Psychiatry (2009)

Coronal view (upper figure) of the frontal cortex illustrating segmentation into superior, middle, inferior, orbital, and rectal sub-regions, and a three-dimensional view (lower figure) illustrating the percentage volume reduction (or increase) in those with Antisocial Personality Disorder compared to normal controls. Significant volume reductions in APDs are coded in red.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3008752&req=5

Figure 2: Coronal view (upper figure) of the frontal cortex illustrating segmentation into superior, middle, inferior, orbital, and rectal sub-regions, and a three-dimensional view (lower figure) illustrating the percentage volume reduction (or increase) in those with Antisocial Personality Disorder compared to normal controls. Significant volume reductions in APDs are coded in red.
Mentions: Gray volumes for all three groups across regions and hemispheres are illustrated in Figure 1. Males with APD showed significant reductions in orbito-frontal, middle frontal gray, and rectal gyral gray, but not white, volumes (see Figure 2). A repeated measures MANOVA on gray matter showed a significant group x region interaction (F (8,134) = 4.63, p < .0001, eta2 = .21). A breakdown of this interaction revealed significant main group effects for orbito-frontal gray, F (2,69) = 4.36, p = .015, eta2 = .115, middle frontal gray, F (2,69) = 6.92, p = .002, eta2 = .167, but not for superior (p = .186), inferior (p = .173), or rectal gyral (p = .131) frontal sites. APDs had significantly reduced orbitofrontal volumes compared to both Normal Controls (t = 3.0, df = 46, p = .004) and Substance Use Controls (t = 2.48, df = 40, p = .017), significantly reduced middle frontal volumes compared to both Normal Controls (t = 3.62, df = 46, p = .001) and Substance Use Controls (t = 2.81, df = 40, p = .008), and marginally significantly reduced rectal gyral volumes compared to Normal Controls (t = 1.93, df = 40, p = .06) and Substance Use Controls (t = 1.82, df = 40, p = .08). Groups did not differ on either whole brain volume, F (2,69) = 0.91, p = .41, or prefrontal white matter, F(2,69) = 0.64, p = .53.

Bottom Line: APD males when compared with male controls showed an 8.7% reduction in orbitofrontal gray volume, a 17.3% reduction in middle frontal gray and a 16.1% reduction in right rectal gray.Reduced middle and orbitofrontal volumes were significantly associated with increased APD symptoms and criminal offending in both males and females.Males as a whole had reduced orbitofrontal and middle frontal gray volume when compared with females, and controlling for these brain differences reduced the gender difference in the antisocial personality/behavior by 77.3%.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Criminology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. araine@sas.upenn.edu

ABSTRACT
Attention is increasingly being given to understanding sex difference in psychopathology to better understand the etiology of disorders. This study tests the hypothesis that sex differences in ventral and middle frontal gray volume contribute to sex differences in antisocial personality disorder (APD) and crime. Participants were recruited from temporary employment agencies, consisting of normal controls, substance/alcohol-dependent controls, axis I/II psychiatric controls and individuals with APD. An independent sample of female volunteers was also recruited. Magnetic resonance imaging volumes of superior frontal, middle frontal, inferior frontal, orbital frontal and rectal gyral frontal gray matter, and dimensional scores of APD and criminal behavior were assessed. APD males when compared with male controls showed an 8.7% reduction in orbitofrontal gray volume, a 17.3% reduction in middle frontal gray and a 16.1% reduction in right rectal gray. Reduced middle and orbitofrontal volumes were significantly associated with increased APD symptoms and criminal offending in both males and females. Males as a whole had reduced orbitofrontal and middle frontal gray volume when compared with females, and controlling for these brain differences reduced the gender difference in the antisocial personality/behavior by 77.3%. Findings were not a function of psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial risk factors, head injury or trauma exposure. Findings implicate structural differences in the ventral and middle frontal gray as both a risk factor for APD and as a partial explanation for sex differences in APD.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus